1.1 Background of the Study
English language which is the second language in Nigeria has occupied a dominant place in the nation’s educational, political, media and business environment. The adoption of the language dates back to 1862 when Lagos was formally established as a colony by the British colonial masters.
Nigeria as a multi-ethnic and multi-lingua nation holds English language as an intermediary language among the different lingua groups. English language has been made an official language of communication and therefore is regarded as a lingua France in Nigeria.
At all levels of education in Nigeria, English language is the language of instructional delivery. The importance of the mastery and proper usage of the language by both teachers and learners cannot be overemphasized. Every other subjects of study in schools, needs a good command of English language.
Education which is a process of equipping learners with the skills and knowledge needed for a desirable change, makes use of some aids or teaching materials in order to achieve this optimal goal. Teachers of yesteryears, relied on few or no aids in teaching because they believed that knowledge could be forced no matter how unpleasant it is, into the supposedly empty brains of their children. They substituted the came for teaching aids, Bellow (1981) suggest that the result was that learning for most children became distasteful, unpleasant and the school a source of constant fear.
Nowadays, it has been discovered that learning should consist of pleasurable activities for the teacher and learners, while at the same time; the teacher tries to appeal to their sense of touch, sight, smell and feeling for effective learning.
Instructional materials are non-human resources which are helpful to the teachers and students for effective teaching and learning. They are teachers helping hand in the process of teaching; it covers a wide range of visual media, from simple According to Ughamadu (1992), educational media are the material that can be used to record, store, preserve, transmit or retrieve information.
The utilization of instructional materials such as textbooks, maps, television, radio, newspapers, resource person etc, in teaching English language at all levels is very important if learners are to acquire the necessary skills in reading, writing and speaking the language fluently. Kay (1981) noted that teaching aids are things which are intended to help the teacher to teach more effectively and enables the learner to learn more readily. Students will obviously understand more easily if the teacher uses a working model outside the experiences of the learners than if he relies solely on a verbal description of it.
The availability and proper utilization of instructional materials have been acknowledged by English language teachers, government and private bodies all stake holders in education as the basic for effective and improved teaching and learning. The problems that hinder it’s availability and power utilization as regards to the learners performance, is the concern of this research work with the view to finding solutions to it.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The study and mastery of English language is a major objective of Nigeria education. The achievement of this objectives requires the concern of both the government and private owners of schools in collaboration with classroom teachers. There is a great need for proper provision and utilization of instructional materials in order to achieve the objective of the emphasis laid on the teaching and learning of English language at all levels of our educational system.
Provision and improvisation of instructional materials and their proper utilization in delivering instructional on English language lesson, undoubtedly will improve the teaching and learning outcome of the subject and the learners.
Despite the consensus on the importance and place of instructional materials in teaching English language, there is a glaring absence of these materials and poor utilization by teachers. The resultant effects of the absence of these materials and their poor utilization on students include mass failure in English language examination in most schools and poor grammar in written and spoken language.
The problem of this study therefore is the extent of the availability and utilization of instructional materials on the academic performance of students in English language, in secondary schools in Orumba south L.G.A Anambra State. In other words, are the instructional materials for teaching English language in public secondary schools availability and utilized?
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to determine the extent of the availability and utilization of instructional materials on the academic performance of students in English language, in secondary schools in Orumba south Local Government Area, Anambra. Specifically, the study sought to determined:
i. The of availability of instructional materials in public secondary schools in Orumba south L.G.A
ii. The extent to which the English language teachers in public secondary schools in Orumba south L.G.A, utilize the availability instructional materials.
iii. The factors militating against the effective utilization of instructional materials
iv. The strategies for achieving more effective utilization of instructional materials
1.4 Significance of the Study
The findings of this study will improve the extent to which the government and private owners of secondary schools provide and utilized instructional materials for teaching English language. The teacher’s efforts at improvisation and utilization of these materials will endear the subject of English language to students of English language to students.
It will also help to find out some of the factors that hinder the utilization of instructional materials. The rate at which students record and their performance improved. The society at large will also enjoy the services of well trained and capable users of this all important language – English language.
1.5 Scope of the Study
The study was limited to the availability and utilization of instructional materials on the academic performance of students in secondary schools in Orumba south L. G.A, Anambra state.
1.6 Research Questions
1) To what extent are instructional materials available for teaching English language to students in secondary schools in Orumba south L.G.A, Anambra state?
2) To what extent do secondary schools teachers utilize available instructional materials in teaching English language to students in secondary school in Orumba south L.G.A Anambra state?
3) What factors militate against effective utilization of available instructional materials in teaching of English language to students in secondary schools, in Orumba south L.G.A, of Anambra state?
4) What are the strategies to the solutions of the problems militating against the use of instructional materials in teaching English language to students in Orumba south L.G.A, Anambra state?
1.7 Research Hypotheses
1. There is no significance difference of the use of instructional materials for teaching English in public secondary school.
2. There is no significance provision and proper utilization of instructional materials for teaching English language by teachers
3. There is no significance difference of the factors militating against effective utilization of available instructional material in teaching English language to the students in secondary school.
4. There is no significance solution or strategies to facilitates the problem militating against the use of instructional materials in teaching English language.
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
There are some constraints to this study, they include:
1. The restriction of the sample for this study to only government owned secondary schools, Orumba South Local Government Area of Anambra State, constitutes a limitation to the study.
2. A more comprehensive view of the study would have been obtained if the study had included in its scope, all the English language teachers in other private schools in Orumba South L.G.A. and in other local government areas of the states in the federation.
However, these observed limitations do not constitute a constraint to the authencity, validity and generalization of findings from the study.
1.9 DEFINITION OF OPERATIONAL TERMS
1. Instructional Materials: they are non- human resources which are helpful to the teachers and students for effective learning.
2. Educational Media: these are materials that can be used to record, store, preserve, transmit or retrieve information for educational purpose.
3. Utilization: this is the act of using a particular thing to achieve a particular aim.
4. Multi-Ethnic: this is a society that has many different ethnic groups within their common social identity or nation, including their differences in race, history and culture.
5. Multi-Lingua: This refers to the ability to use several languages.