CARD READER AS A TOOL FOR ELECTION TRANSPARENCY (2015 ELECTIONS)


CARD READER AS A TOOL FOR ELECTION TRANSPARENCY (2015 ELECTIONS)

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The electoral process in Nigeria has gain a lot of transparency since the inception of the use of card reader as the tool for the credibility. The continuous occurrence of electoral malpractice in Nigeria political election has had a negative effect on its reputation and reliability.

According to (Akinboye, 2005) states that the effective management of the Nigeria electoral process has become significantly imperative political demand in order to ensure the level of transparency, sanctity and the overall credibility of election results in nation’s democratic settings.

(Udu, Nkwede et. Al2014) in his research stated that the INEC as an instrument of processing the democratic ideal structures is expected to be an independent body that promotes the ideals of continuous transparency, accountability, impartiality and responsiveness. This maybe informed that popular perception that INEC is insulted from the partisan politics, and that INEC is fully empowered to carryout its avowed duties devoid of any kind of influence.

Evidence has it that INEC over the years has not been fully autonomous and non-partisan, it is also said that INEC does not appear to be sufficiently empowered to discharge its assigned duties and responsibility. Take a look at the 2015 general election in Nigeria despite some recorded irregularities evidenced in the non availability of the electoral materials, the rigging of the election results in some areas, especially the rural areas, the malfunctioning of the card reader machines and the friction caused by politicians and security personnel to subvert the process, the outcome of the 2015 general election in Nigeria was generally accepted to be transparent.

It was rumoured that by most of the foreign intelligent units and diplomatic sources since the year 2011 that Nigeria as a country will cease to exist after the 2015 election. According to the U. S ambassador to Nigeria, by name Mr John Campbell said that the country (Nigeria) will break up after the 2015 because he believed that the 2015 election will bring nothing but to put Nigeria in crisis.

But the result of the 2015 election came out otherwise even though many Nigeria believed that campbell prediction might take place.

Frankly, Nigerians have desired a change of the Goodluck Jonathan’s PDP administration which has been generally accused of inefficiency, corruption, contempt of the people, insecurity etc. Security was brazenly compromised as government security agencies, including the military conducted their responsibilities with clear partisan inclinations that left nobody in doubt that state apparatuses as important as security and military institutions became tools of political vendetta, electoral manipulations and subversion of democratic norms. election transparency

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
What really instigated the study card reader as a tool for election transparency is the continous growth of irregularities in Nigeria political election; evidence has it that the citizens of Nigeria has never been satisfied with the manner in which election is being conducted in Nigeria. election transparency the powerful opposition parties riggs election at will; thereby putting the nation in crisis. Over the years, a lot of lives has been lost during these periods of election rendering families homeless, children fatherless and shift in the federal allocation to most of the communities in Nigeria. the major problem here is the vote and re-vote processes in most of rural area because there is no tool for credibility. election transparency

1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main of objective of the research work is to examine the effect of card reader on election credibility and transparency. The specific objectives of the research work are stated as follows:
1. To examine the relationship between the use of card reader and the election transparency
2. To examine the effect of card reader on the electoral process
3. To investigate the factors affecting the delay or non- availability of electoral materials
4. To discuss the role of INEC in the transparency and credibility of 2015 general election
5. To proffer solution to the issues with the card in 2015 general election election transparency

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The study came up with the following research questions in s as to ascertain the overall obejctives of the study. the research questions are stated as follows:
1. Is there any relationship between the use of card reader and the election transparency?
2. What is the effect of card reader on the electoral process?
3. What are the factors affecting the delay or non- availability of electoral materials?
4. What are the roles of INEC in the transparency and credibility of 2015 general election?

1.5 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
Hypothesis 1
H0: there is no mean difference in gender responses of the respondents that the use of card reader is very effective in the 2015 general election election transparency
H1: there is mean difference in gender responses of the respondents that the use of card reader is very effective in the 2015 general election. election transparency
Hypothesis 2
H0: there is no significant relationship between the use of card reader and election transparency
H1: there is significant relationship between the use of card reader and election transparency

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study will be of immense benefit to the federal government of Nigeria, the INEC, the citizdens of Nigeria, the world political bodies, the students and other researchers that wishes to carry out a simililar research on the use of card reader as a tool for election transparency.

1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study card reader as a tool for election transparency will cover the 2015 general election in Nigeria. election transparency

1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. election transparency This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work. election transparency

1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
CARD READER: is a portable electronic voter authentication device, configured to only read the Permanent Voter Cards issued by the Independent National Electoral Commission. election transparencyThe card reader was designed specifically for the accreditation process, authentication of eligible voters before voting. election transparency
TRANSPARENCY: the condition of being transparent election transparency
ELECTION: is a formal decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold public office. Elections have been the usual mechanism by which modern representative democracy has operated since the 17th century. election transparency Elections may fill offices in the legislature, sometimes in the executive and judiciary, and for regional and local government. election transparency
ELECTORAL MATERIALS: This virtual library is a continuously updated collection of sample electoral materials from around the world, including laws and regulations, ballot papers, training manuals, election posters, essays, observation reports, technical assessments, administrative guidelines, electoral forms, codes of conduct, and much more. election transparency

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