THE CAUSES OF BRIBERY AND CORRUPTION IN OUR CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY (A CASE OF STUDY OF TAKUM)


THE CAUSES OF BRIBERY AND CORRUPTION IN OUR CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY (A CASE OF STUDY OF TAKUM)

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Nigeria, which the most populated country in Africa, has been ranked high in corruption by Transparency International and other notable organizations that monitor corrupt practices around the world. They do not have anything good to say about Nigeria at all. High corruption rankings affect almost all Nigerians who migrate to foreign countries, as foreigners have the perception that since Nigeria is corrupt, so are all Nigerians.

In the year 2000, Transparency International carried out a survey on the corruption levels of 90 countries, including Kenya, Cameroon, Angola, Nigeria, Côte-d’Ivoire, Zimbabwe, Ethiopia, Ghana, Senegal, Zambia, India, Venezuela, Moldova, and others. At the end of the ranking, Nigeria was seen as the most corrupt in that ranking because the country occupied the 90th position in terms of transparency. Nigeria was the most corrupt country in the year 2000.

In 2001, Nigeria was ranked the second-most corrupt nation in the world out of 91 countries, falling only to Bangladesh. This shows that corruption in Nigeria improved by one step when compared with that of 2000.

Still from the same source, in the year 2002, Nigeria was again ranked the second-most corrupt country in the world, after the organization surveyed 102 countries. Nigeria was seen at the bottom, occupying the 101th position in terms of Confidence Interval (CI). Contemporary Society

In 2003, Nigeria received the same ranking, making no improvements from 2003.
2004’s ranking showed a little improvement when compared to the past four years. Nigeria was ranked the third most corrupt country in the world in that year, performing better than Bangladesh and Haiti. That year, 146 nations were surveyed.
The record on the corruption in Nigeria really improved in 2005. The number of countries surveyed by the Transparency International was 158. Nigeria was ranked eighth most corrupt.
More countries were surveyed by Transparency International in 2006. 163 countries were surveyed that year. The results showed some improvement, and Nigeria was ranked the 21st most corrupt country in the world. Haiti was the world’s most corrupt nation that year.

Among the 180 countries surveyed in 2007, Nigeria ranked 147 on the table along side with Angola and Guinea-Bissau. This result shows that Nigeria was 33rd most corrupt country in the world.

An analysis of the anti-graft/anti-corruption laws in Nigeria shows that corruption will continue in spite of the law, because the perpetrators do not fear any consequences (Oyinola 2011).

In 2012, Transparency International again deemed Nigeria one of the most corrupt nations in the world again (Uzochukwu 2013). In that year, the country ranked 139th out of the 176 surveyed countries, making Nigeria the 37th most corrupt nation.

In 2013, Nigeria ranked 144 out of 177 surveyed countries in terms of transparency. The score made Nigeria 33rd most corrupt country in the world that year. The result published by the organization also showed that Nigeria scored 25% out of 100 in terms of transparency.

In the 2014 ranking, Nigeria is ranked 136 out 174 surveyed countries (Transparency International 2014). The result shows that there is improvement, though things are still bad. Nigeria was the 38th most corrupt country in the world in 2014.

With the emergence of new government in the year 2015, many Nigerians were having great faith that corruption in the country will be minimized. In that year, power left the hands of People’s Democratic Party (PDP) to All Progressive Congress (APC). One of the campaign promises made by the present President Muhammadu Buhari was massive eradication of corruption in the country. Irrespective of the campaign promises, Nigeria ranked low in transparency and high in corruption in that year. In the year 2015, out of the 168 countries surveyed, Nigeria was seen at the bottom of the table in the category of number 136. This implies that Nigeria was the 32nd most corrupt country in the world in 2015.

Nigeria failed when it came to transparency in the country. By contrast, in 2013, Denmark and New Zealand scored highest at 91% each, meaning the countries are clean and have higher Confidence Intervals than Nigeria. In the other words, Nigeria is highly corrupt.

Corruption in Nigeria wears many kinds of unattractive and dirty clothes. The situation has made so many people feel a lot of pains as the money which would have been used to reduce poverty in the country are being channeled into the pockets of small group of persons.

What can we say about the $2.1 billion arms deal? The money which was budgeted for the purchase of arms in the fight against Boko Haram insurgency group in the country all of a sudden disappeared. Whether the fund developed legs and ran away is what the Federal Government of Nigeria could not explain to the citizenry.

The stain of corruption did not spare anti-graft agencies as former Chairman of the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission, EFCC, Ibrahim Lamorde, was accused of fraudulently diverting over N1tn proceeds from corruption recovered by the agency (Adeyemi 2016). This is incredible as those who were appointed to fight corruption in the country are also found as the victim of the same problem they fight. That is to say that trust is difficult in the country.

Faces of Corruption

Corruption takes many forms and can be interpreted by many people in many ways. It is hard to enter any sector in Nigeria without observing one corrupt practice or the other. The areas where corruption is observed are not only in the public sector or in politics. Sincerely, the faces are much. Bribery

Political Corruption

Books have been written, people have talked, and press companies have been writing on the high level of corruption in Nigeria politics, yet the political perpetrators pretend as if they are not the people being talked about. They feel they are above the law.

Corruption takes many shapes, starting with embezzlement, bribery, rituals, rigging in elections and so on. In fact, corruption is highest in the political system. In both the Senate and the House of Representatives, corruption is seen as normal. Where do we start among politicians? It is because of the “wicked level” of corruption that makes both the youths and the old struggle to find themselves in one political party or the other. They believe that once they occupy any position in politics, even the smallest, they will use corrupt tricks to fill their pockets with public funds. Bribery

Embezzlement of public funds is common. Many leaders have helped boost the economies of other nations by depositing embezzled money in foreign banks. Facts and figures have shown that on many occasions, the men who rule the country have embezzled funds into foreign banks. Bribery

Political corruption is persistent in the Nigerian state. Since the creation of modern public administration in the country, there have been cases of official misuse of resources for personal enrichment (Storey Report 2014). After the death of the former president, President Sani Abacha, an investigation was carried out to detect the amount of money he embezzled in gas plant construction in the country. The investigations led to the freezing of accounts containing about $100 million United States dollars (Hector 2004) that he stole. The Abacha administration in the 1990s notoriously looted upwards of $3 billion (Uzochukwu 2013). Bribery

As of a few years back, whenever it was time for election in Nigeria, small children in the country began to go missing. Child-missing during that period was rampant and parents were usually advised to guide and guard their children from ritualists. But why was it like that and what were the children used for? This is another face of corruption that breaks the hearts of mothers. The missing children were used by contesting politicians to perform ritual killings in order to get protections and other devilish powers that will enable them win elections. This is corruption and wickedness in the highest order because it involves the termination of human life. Those who take part in that practice have their children at home and went on capturing and killing the children of others. It is not as if this has stopped, but it has slowed down. Bribery

Election rigging is not an unheard-of phenomenon. During elections, the contestants hire thugs who go round the election polling stations to highjack the ballot boxes. When they steal these boxes, they then use their hands to vote for their candidate. In the recent times, the new tactics that the contestants have adopted is buying voter’s cards so that they can manipulate and use the cards for their own advantages. Bribery

On many occasions politicians have bribed some top officials to do wrong things to their favour. Some political leaders, including governors and presidents, have been sued by opponents, but the sued followed the back door, bribing barristers and judges. At the end of the judgement, the leader who bribed won in the case.

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