1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Dating and pre-marital sex-raise endless questions, it is a practice that influence by the time, period, social conditions, construct, biology, cultural no and institutional structure that surrounds people. Dating is an activity that most college aged students are interested or are engaged in.
Dating according to Longman English Dictionary of Contemporary English defines dating to be a romantic relationship with someone. Collins Dictionary also defines dating as engagement or appointment between the opposite sex. Pre-marital sex is then having sexual intercourse with the opposite sex before marriage. It is an exceptional young person who has not had sexual intercourse while still a teenager. Mache (1981) the young passion for love and peer-pressure are so sex, is viewed by youth as fun and that when you really like someone, it is only natural to want to be intimate. Watch Tower Bible and tract Society of Pennsylvania by Mache (1981) some may even say that having sex proved your man-hood or womanhood. Not wanting to be viewed as odd one may thus fall under pressure to experience sexual relationship contrary to popular opinion, not all youth are in a that falling in love is as its nature a substitute for personal accomplishment.
Psychologists, from (1968), proposed that there are two purpose to a person falling in love. The first step is from the need to escape, the second is from internal discontent, grows the longing and tendency to fall in love with another person. On the other hand, distinguished between welfare while immature love explicit the beloved in other to satisfy his/her needs.
In the last few decades, dating was informal, daters requires no formal commitment to each other but now the peers institute the rules of dating Rehelle (1999) stated that the popular part time on dates were dancing and it was a group but now it has become couple oriented. Cars also have a great impact on dating and premarital sex. Having cars now enable couples to have more privacy and intimacy away from the glaring eyes of onlookers from 1960’s till the present day, there have been some drastic changes. In dating feminism had a big impact on dating and premarital sex, woman are now empowered more than ever themselves not just as a wife but also a human being. The advent of birth control methods increases the rate of premarital sex. The average age at first intercourse ranges between 13 and 14, Allenburger and Moone (1992) for males and females, Juhasz, Kaufman and Mever, (1996) reported that 80% of males and 61% of females have engaged in dating and premarital sex is a practices that is lighted again and again in the media. Sociologists pointed out that the idea of a romantic love did not ever exist prior to industrial revolution of 18th and 19th century. After the industrial revolution, people did not depend on each other as much to survive when idea of romantic love first appear. Dating at a young age is characterized by youth of nowadays, now a days as fun and is done for a companionship rather than a serious activity for the purpose of finding a life long mate.
The media have a direct influence on dating habit and views about the opposite sex. Male controlled media have enhanced an environment in which to define woman as sex object Ollenburger and Moore (1992), movies and television serve to create and maintained social beliefs about the sex. There are many biological factors that helps determined ones dating habits, biological make-up, as well as chemical actions plays a major role in who one is attracted to. There isn’t much information on how they work, but hormones are known to be a leading factor in establishing sex drive. A study of love attractiveness and sex drive carried out by Wilson and Nins (1976) pointed out that “Sex drives are chemical release by the gonalds and other glands circulates through the blood back to brain, they influence our biological readiness for production attractiveness to potential partners and receptiveness to them. Another chemical that affect dating and pre-marital sex is a aphrodisiacs. It enhance sexual desire, some of these substances are Caviar, Oysters, BV Vitamins E, and Chocolate. All unfunded claim”. The timing of sexual initiations and subsequent sensual behaviour is influence by many factors such as;
Marital and child bearing of parents acting as a role model, including experience of divorce, living arrangement and behaviour towards the opposite sex have been identified as being impacted (Ostrov et al., 1985) Girls from single parent families tend to become sexually active, however, it is not dear if lack of supervision of behaviour modeling is at the core.
Parental supervision has impact on adolescent girls but not so much on a male child. Fingeman (1989) non authoritarian parenting has been found to be associated with non virginity I n youth as a result of permissiveness and no parental support. Parental attitude and view. Moore et al., (1991) found that parents who strong traditional views about pre-marital sex and communicated some to their children were the only group able to infleucen their children’s sexual behaviour.
Relationship with the family: Lack of attentive and nurturing parent is linked to early sexual activity and unplanned teenage pregnancies peer association is closely linked with low academic performance; Ohanession and Crackett (1993) suggested that academic achievement by girls predicted postponed sexual activity.
Educational goals have been identified as impacting on sexual activity with high achievers having lower rate of dating and pre-marital sex, amongst male and female students of urban and rural areas.
However, educational factors are often mediated by other influence such as coming from a well to do family and having plans for the future peer association has been indicated as one of the strongest predictors of adolescent sexual behaviour Diablasio and Benda (1999) stated that youth who do not engage in sex, while those that are sexually active tend to believe that their friends are sexually active as well. Every one has a system a sexual sensors consisting of specialized nerves ending that responds to sexual stimulus all over the body, sexual arousal or excitement may begin with sex related though, felling arousal or touching or even smell.
The purpose of sex education therefore is to provide students with adequate knowledge of their own physical, mental and emotional maturation process as related to sex. The knowledge of sex education would eliminate fear and anxiety to individual sexual adjustment and therefore help him/her to develop an understanding attitude sexual promiscuity, teenage regency; normal abortion and school dropout. There are all effect of dating and premarital sex which originated from lack of sex education which subsequently affect academic performance, there’s need for counseling which would produce behaviour change.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
There is a link between sexual activities and academic performance, as the world changes, so do our lives, this is true of dating and pre-marital sex; one can observe the drastic changes in dating, rituals and pre-marital sex.
A sexologist, Tiefer (1995) stated that sex is not a natural act, Wilson and Nias (1976) also stated that sex hormones are increase when the brain is confronted by sexual arousing stimuli and decrease when confronted with fear, anxiety, stress. This is probably because hormone secreted is controlled by the pituitary gland which has connections to the hypothalam us’ in the brain, pheromones is another chemical that plays important role dating.
These hormones help to regulate and control female menstrual cycle, which in turn affected ovulation, emotion, performances and hormonal level in the body. When these happen, they become seemingly comfortable to express their feelings toward each other, if the youths are allowed to interact romantically without supervision by parents, it will certainly affect their academic performance.
Because of the possible out-come, from it premarital sex and dating evolving from the youth, failure to discuss that issue of sex and sexuality education with our children, leads to them dating secretly because of the natural tendency to do so coupe with environmental factors. These secrecy and taboos surrounding the issue of sex leads to high incidence of teenage sexual tragedies, dating and pre-marital sex involve the emotional, physical, social, psychological and educational, aspect of the individual health wise, it may lead to STDs, HIV/AIDs, some student use the academic for love talks, outing and seeking for the seemingly happiness of each other. This type of relationship will certainly affect academic performance thereby leading dropping out from school.
This unfortunate situation abounds among urban and rural secondary schools students and certainly needs counseling intervention to redress such ugly trend. Against this background, the study investigates effects of dating and pre-marital sex on academic performances of urban and rural students.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of dating and pre-marital sex on academic performance of students in urban and rural secondary school specifically; the study has the following objectives:
1. To examine the influence of sex education on pre-marital sex of students.
2. To assess the difference in pre-marital sex between urban and rural students.
3. To also determine the relationship between pre-marital sex and academic performance of students.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions guides the study:
1. Does sex education have any influence on pre-marital sex?
2. Does any difference exist between urban and rural students in their pre-marital sex activities.
3. Does any relationship exist between pre-marital sex and academic performance of students.
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The following hypotheses were formulated go guide the study:
1. Sex education does not significantly influence marital sex among students.
2. Urban students do not differ significantly from rural students in their pre-marital sex activities.
3. There is no significant relationship between pre-marital sex and academic performance students.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is expected that the study will be beneficial to parent s, students, educators, government and others in general. The study suggests that “all information and help regarding sex education should be given to students as it relates to the provision of factual knowledge about male/female reproductive structures, functions, structural charged and the process of reproduction.
Secondly, the study will help the Government consider the inductive sex education in the school curriculum.
Thirdly, it is a known fact that no one can stop young people from having sex, hence the need for comprehensive sex education as this will provide opportunity for questions explorations and assessment of their sexual attitudes.
Lastly, it will help young people to develop interpersonal skills in communication decision making, assertiveness and peer refusal skills as well as the ability to create a satisfying relationship in adolescent and adulthood thereby preventing teenage sexual tragedies.
1.7 DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study was delimited to the effect of pre-marital sex academic performance of urban rural secondary school. Students in Ikot Abasi Local Government Area. It does not include students in tertiary or primary institution the generation the study therefore be for the secondary school students only.
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The only limitation to the study was time factor to have reached out to all Secondary Schools in Ikot Abasi Local Government Area.
1.9 ASSUMPTIONS OF THE STUDY
1. It is assumed that pre-marital sex has a lot of influence on academic performance of students.
2. Parents assume that young people walking together always may lead to pre-marital sex.
3. It is generally assumed that others similar to oneself will be more pivotal as a source of influence.
1.10 DEFINITION OF TERMS
• Dating: To have a romantic relationship with someone.
• Pre-marital sex: Having sexual intercourse before marriage.
• Sex/sexual intercourse: The activity in which male and female join their sexual organs to create a body or for pleasure.
• Assertiveness: Behaving in a confident way so that people notice you.
• Assessment: a process in which you make a judgment about a person or situation.
• Exploration: An examination or discussion of something to find out more about it.
• Sexuality: The things that people do and feel that are connected with their desire or ability to have sex.
• Exploit: To treat someone unfairly in order to get or an advantage of yourself.
• Industrial revolution: The period especially in the 18th to 19th centuries when machines were invented and the first factory established.
• Feminism: The belief that woman should haves the same rights and opportunities as men.
• Ritual: Something that is don in fixed and expected was but without real meaning or sincerity.
• Sexology: A person who studies sexual behaviour especially among humans.
• Romantic: Showing strong feeling of love and like; doing things that are connected with love.
• Obligation: A moral or legal duty to do something.
• Cradle: To hold something gentle in your hands or arms.