EFFECTS AND CAUSES OF OVERPOPULATION IN NIGERIA


EFFECTS AND CAUSES OF OVERPOPULATION IN NIGERIA

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ABSTRACT

This research work was designed to find out the causes and effect of overpopulation in Nigerian. In carrying out this research, the researcher visited some Areas in Edo State, and questionnaires were used to elicit information for the general public, and these information’s were analyzed in form of tables. It was observed that polygamy; illiteracy, poverty and early marriage are some of the reasons responsible for the rapid increase in population. Also the effects have raised concerns that the planned economy may not be able to sustain present or large number of inhabitants. Hence, having few number of children, monogamy and improvement in the standard of living are the solutions to the resultant effects of population explosion in Nigeria. The following recommendations were made. The government should improve the appalling health sector of this country; there is need for the elimination of harmful practices such as sexual trafficking and violence against women. Government should endeavour to provide programmes that will stress on the continuo’s use of family planning services, women should be educated and empowered. Finally, if the government can provide incentives for smaller families, exponential population growth can be checked.

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

Background to the study

Statement of the problem

Purpose of the study

Significance of the study

Research questions

Scope of the study

Limitations of the study

Definition of terms

CHAPTER TWO

Review of related literature

The causes of overpopulation in Nigeria

The effects overpopulation in Nigeria

Solutions to the problems of overpopulation

CHAPTER THREE

METHODOLOGY

Research design

Population of the study

Sample of the study

Sampling techniques adopted

Instrumentation

Validation of instrument

Method of data collection

Method of data analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

Data presentation, analysis and interpretation

CHAPTER FIVE

Summary, conclusion and recommendations

Summary

Conclusion

Recommendation

REFERENCES

APPENDIX

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Population in biology is referred to as the total number of organisms of the same species in a give habitat at a given time. In respect of human population, population can be defined as the total number of people in a given country (Obueh, 2006). The size and structure of human population have been completely changed by a number of factors including higher incomes, improved nutrition, safe and sufficient water and sanitation, wide availability of immunization, high effective drugs against infectious diseases, increased education and technological development. It is therefore correct to state that the economic growth of a nation is significantly dependent on the growth of its population.

Nigeria is one of the fastest growing countries in the world with an estimated population of one hundred and forty million (140,000,000) and an annual population growth rate of 2.9% (Npc, 2006).

Nigeria is the most populous nation in sub Saharan Africa and the tenth most populous in the world. However, the composition of this population is mainly in the youthful category with 49% being youths below the age of twenty-one (21) and a dependency ratio estimated at 89%. A large proportion of this population favours and is living in the rapidly expanding urban area, presently estimated at over 45.2% and will likely hit 55.4% mark by the year 2015 (UNDP, 2007)

With this statistics however, the population dynamics shows profound inequities and disproportions when analyzed with the development indicators, such as, twenty-one doctors per one hundred thousand people, infant mortality rate of 122 per 1000 live births, maternal of mortality over 980 per 100,000 live births, life expectancy at birth projected at 50. 1 years (population growth and economic development in Nigeria, 2008)

Umeh (1996) suggested that the population of a place must be such that the available food can sustain it for a very long time. The question of population and population growth and the related food and growth in food population are serious concern to nations and their leaders. This is because increased population has direct consequence on food consumption in the most developing countries; population growth rate is close to crisis situation.

World population statistics tell a powerful story about how people and nations around the world are changing. The world’s population is growing substantially every year, but the pace of growth varies dramatically from one region to another some countries have aging population and as a result, face future population decline while others still have young and rapidly growing populations. Each situation is associated with its own set of social, economic, environmental and political challenges (Obueh, 2008).

However, the world population by mid 2010 reached 6. 892 billion according to the population reference Burea 2010 world population data sheet. Most future population growth will be in countries that have relatively large number of young people where large families are still the norm. Sub-Saharan Africa and Western Asia are the fastest growing regions of the world. In contrast, much of the industrialized world is experiencing much slower growth or even population decline. The United States in an exception in the industrialized world, mainly because of immigration and somewhat higher birth rates.

TABLE 1: The world population by mid 2010 (Obueh, 2008)
Population World

6,892,319,000
More developed countries

1,236,646,000
Less developed countries

5,655,673,000
Births

Per
Year

Day

Minute
14,184,169

384,066

207
14,215,211

38,946

27
125,968,959

345,120

240
Deaths

Per
Year

Day

Minute
56,907,606

155,911

108
12,125,055

33,219

23
44,782,552

122,692

85
Natural

Increase

(births, death)

Per
Year

Day

Minute
83,276,563

228,155

158
2,090,156

5,762

4
81.186,407

222,429

154
Infant

Deaths

Per
Year

Day

Minute
6,383,531

17,489

12
80,133

220

0.2
6,303.398

17,270

12

Moreso, in the very near future, the majority of the world’s population will live in urban areas, which include towns and cities.

The population shift from rural to urban residents usually have higher educational levels, smaller families, higher incomes, better health and longer lives than rural residents. But the growth of urban population also strains the capacity of many developing countries to provide basic amenities for all residents, the prospects or public services than those in rural areas.

TABLE 2: The world’s most populous countries in 2010 (Obueh, 2008)
Rank Country Population (millions)
1 China 1,338
2 India 1,189
3 United States 310
4 Indonesia 235
5 Brazil 193
6 Pakistan 185
7 Bangladesh 164
8 Nigeria 158
9 Russia 142
10 Japan 127

Although, the 2006 march Nigeria census results released in January 2007, put Nigeria’s population as 140.3 million.

Table 3: projected population in 2050 (Obueh, 2008)
Rank Country Population (millions)
1 India 1,748
2 China 1,437
3 United States 423
4 Pakistan 339
5 Nigeria 326
6 Indonesia 309
7 Bangladesh 222
8 Brazil 215
9 Ethiopia 174
10 Congo, Dem. Rep 166

The world’s population is projected to grow to more than a billion in 2010 from 6.892 billion now. In a few years, India’s population would surpass that of china to become the most populous country in the world. From the data presented, it shows that Nigeria’s population would double in 2010. This is due to the young age structure and high fertility level causing high birth rates. Nearly half of Nigeria’s population is below age 15 and only 3% is above age 65.

In 1998, Nigeria adopted a national population policy which seeks to reduce population growth rate through voluntary fertility regulation and to promote the health and welfare of mothers and children, to improve the quality of life of all Nigerians. The main thrust of the policy is the recommendation to young couples not to have more than four children per family (or per woman). This could not be attained.

Despite the probable decline fertility in the 1990s, given the country’s age structure, Nigeria’s 1990 population was expected at least to double before the middle of the next century. Somewhat less than half of Nigeria’s 1990 population was younger than fifteen (15). As a result, even if population growth were to drop immediately to a replacement arte and remain there, the 1990 population would double before stabilizing. Nigeria thus could expect to deal with a population of more than 200 million probably within the next twenty-five years.

These projections suggested that population growth would be an issue of central concern for Nigeria for some time to come. Merely to remain at current per capital levels, agricultural production, industrials and other economic out put and provision of health and other social services would all need to double within twenty-five years. This situation was challenged of historic proportions for Nigeria, one faced by many other nations of Africa.

It is against this background therefore, that this study is initiated to find out the effects or consequences of population explosion in Edo State, Nigeria.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

It has been noted that in Nigeria, most especially, parents’ interest towards child bearing was to support more children in the society and will try to explore all the possible ways by making sure that they encourage other parents in supporting more children also, which has led to overpopulation.

However, the problem of overpopulation is not farfetched. Nigerians are not well educated on the need to control their birth rate and the effects it has on them as well as the society. The government can no longer provide adequate basic infrastructure for its citizen as a result of the explosion in population. Unemployment is one the increase as well as crime.

In addition, marrying of many wives (polygamy) illiteracy among couples, people attitude to family size, socio-cultural practices, early marriages and religious beliefs are also some of the problems that can be responsible for the explosion in population in Nigeria.

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The following constitute the purpose for which this research is carried out.

To examine the causes of overpopulation.
To know whether these continuous increase in population has any effects on the Nigeria economy.
To suggest some of the ways of resolving the problems associated with overpopulation.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study provides information about the causes of overpopulation. It also helps the researcher and readers to know whether socio-cultural practices and beliefs has led parents to support more children. The study also helps to ascertain whether overpopulation has effect on the economy and to what extent it has affected the economy. It enlightens the researcher on how to solve the problems associated with overpopulation in Edo State.

Finally, this study is significant in the sense that people would become familiar with the causes of population study and also the derivable benefits associated with them.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

What are the reasons for rapid growth in population?
What are the effects of the continuous increase in population on the economy?
What are the solutions to the problems associated with population explosion?

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This research analysis is expected to cover the population increase and its problem in Nigeria with particular reference to Edo State.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

Population: This is the total number of organisms of the same kind in a given habitant at a particular time.

Population growth: This is the rate at which a population is increasing or decreasing in a given year due to natural increase and not migration, expressed as a percentage of the base population.

Human population: This can be defined as the total number of people in a given community at a particular time.

Explosion: A large sudden or rapid increase in the amount or number of something.

Populous: This is where a large number of people live (densely populated).

Data: These are facts or information especially when examine and used to find out things or make decisions.

Effect: This is defined as a change produced by an action or other cause.

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