This research work presented an evaluation of Security agents and their effectiveness in the Port Harcourt sea port and how they tackle security problems arising from the day-to-day activities of the Port. The secondary source of data obtained from documented facts was used extensively for this study. The documented records was extracted and compiled from Security reports on the sea port and documents recording port reforms as well scholarly articles on sea port security, for a period of four years. And method of data analysis employed were moving averages, graphical representations, quantitative description (using operation efficiency model), and the statistical chi-square test of hypothesis. The operational efficiencies were estimated over a period of 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015. The relationship between the operational efficiency and security is therefore of in verse proportionality. This means that a surge in the security challenge will adversely reduce if the security agents are given adequate equipments. From the statistical test of hypothesis estimated, it is apparent that the null hypotheses are to be rejected. The study therefore conclude that the availability of equipment is one of the factors affecting the efficiency of security officials because if the security officials have every equipment needed to carry out their duties effectively, then the rate of smuggling in the Port Harcourt sea port will be reduced. Nigeria Ports, Nigeria Ports
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Nigeria is indeed one of the greatest maritime nations of the world; this is confirmed by both the local maritime operators and foreign maritime operators. Ports are supposed to be security zones and policed as such to prevents crimes mainly theft, smuggling among sabotage attacks, stowaway.
In olden days, theft as merely limited to petty pilferage and broaching of cartons by Dockers only tilling their pockets that would neither attract attention nor cause appreciable loss to the cargo consignee. The crime latter escalated to piracy onboard vessels at anchorage. Crews were violently robbed and cargo stolen, with some measure of success in checking piracy at anchorage, attention shifted to the ports proper.
There are many security agents both conventiona1l recognized law enforcement agents and the fadeless ones purporting to be government officials seeing to the general security of our ports These notwithstanding the ports are being easily accessible to a multitude of hoodlums now popularly known as “what rats” and syndicates of other malefactors actors who have made the ports their homes.
They vandalize the lighting system to enable them carry out their natural and notorious activities. Any degree of crimes can now be perpetrated by these hoodlums acting in cohorts with some of the security agents, and port official. Crewmembers going ashore are sometimes violently attacked and robbed within and outside the ports.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
If Nigeria must grow both politically and economically, there are needs for an efficient and effective security system for safety of cargoes id ship including the crews. There should be both the activities of the appropriate authority and the private sectors to ensure that security at the port be maintained.
Cargo theft has grown from breaking any types of package within the ports to complete disappearance of container out of the ports. Cargos are being successfully cleared from the port by spurious owners. Ships are boarded by unauthorized persons who steal both cargoes and ship property including those relate to safety. What a criminal act! Vehicular cargoes are more vulnerable to plunderage because of the attention they attract. They are loaded with some goods that are not made parks where they normally await clearing. They are securely locked and then keys are handed to security officials for safety. But most of these vehicles with or without undeclared goods are mysteriously opened and their valuable parts are stolen.
Clearing of cargoes is a process which the shippers, freight forwarded and consignees thinks is as difficult as the head of the camel having to pass through the eye of1the needle The customs long room is being made too “long” for clearing agents Problems with all department involved in the clearing start from the usual indifferences to work, the officials thinking that they are doing the agents favour The agents must “co-operate” with the officials, otherwise their entries will either be unnecessarily delayed further or completely lost in the labyrinth of bureaucracy Having survived the voracity these official and the goods released the clearing agent face the cast ordeal of having to “settle” all other security agents and officials even with authentic release documents Some of the security men still go outside the ports to intercept and tort the consignee for “settlement” Coupled with factors like high port tariffs, port insecurity is now causing Nigerian ports serious loss of clientele to neighbouring ports. Lome and Cotonou for example, although in charter parties and ordinary contracts of affreightment where carriage of goods by sea Act 1971 does no apply to the operating bills of lading. Ship owners can exclude liability for loss of or damage to cargo arising from piratical acts generally the Act (COGSA “71”) does not provide such that Nigeria has joined the club of port stigmatized as dangerous in insurance circle. Consequently, ship owners and shippers pays higher premiums for ships and cargoes, a burden that is ultimately passed to the public consumers.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study includes:
1. To highlight the importance of security agents in ports.
2. To evaluate the performances of security agents in ports.
3. To focus attention on factors influencing the efficiency and effectiveness of security agents in Nigeria ports.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions were stated to guide this study:
1. What is the importance of security agents in ports?
2. Does security agents aid the performance of ports?
3. Are there any factors influencing the efficiency and effectiveness of security agents in Nigeria ports?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: There are no factors influencing the efficiency and effectiveness of security agents in Nigeria ports.
H1: There are factors influencing the efficiency and effectiveness of security agents in Nigeria ports.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Most importantly, this research work is to contribute to the knowledge on the efficiency and effectiveness of security agents in Nigeria pots authority.
It shall also act as a basis for further investigation or scrutinization on crime reporting and the various psychological social effects on its victims in Nigeria ports.
Lastly, it is an attempt to bring into limelight; some of the challenges involved in the process of effective and efficient security and suggest likely solutions on how to improve these services.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is limited to Port Harcourt Sea Port and upon the subject of the study which is the efficiency and effectiveness of security agents in Nigeria ports.
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The limitation of this study was inability of security personnel to divulge certain information which they consider sensitive and fear of publication which might be detrimental to their operation.
Also, the outright inability of some respondents to complete and return the questionnaire to the researcher is one of the limitations of the study.
Another limitation to the study was traffic congestion for the researcher to meet them in their places of work and for possible return of the questionnaire.
Finally, the researcher observed the non-cooperative attitude of some workers of the company to make information available for her.