1.1 Background to the Study
Planning in the context of education entails the process of setting objectives and determining the means to achieving the objectives. It entails deciding in advance what to be taught how, to teach, when to teach, who is be taught, and the evaluation of recipient.
Planning is the beginning of teaching and learning process, before a teacher goes to the class to deliver any lesson, he plans such lessons while education administrators make policy and plan the curriculum for the school to implement them.
Through planning for a lesson makes the teaching-learning encounter valuable and productive impact. Conversely, no planning leads to a wasteful and unproductive lesson. The motion pervades education at all levels and in all subject areas (Egbe, 2008).
There appears to be widespread agreement not only on the value of planning, but also on the substance and format of plans. The plan that enlisted universal acceptance contains the purposes, experiences and their organization and evaluation.
If a lesson is to be effective, the teacher needs to make decision in these areas before the lesson. He needs to identify the objectives he intends to develop, the knowledge or subject-matter, objectives as well as the process and effective objectives. He needs to select and organize students learning experience that will develop the objective. He needs to make decision about activities to be used, materials to be gathered, amount of time to be spent, and other matters. Finally, he needs to decide what method or instrument to use to determine whether the teaching accomplished the objective of the lesson.
The notion that effective planning will give direction to teaching and result in worthwhile efficient learning has considerable logical validity. It would seem that careful, detailed planning concerning purposes, experiences and evaluation would result in useful and appropriate teacher behavior in the classroom. But is this assumption valid?
Does planning increase the effectiveness of teaching and learning?
It is against this background that the researcher deemed the subject matter. The impact of effective planning on teaching and learning process worthy of investigation.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The state of teaching is fast deteriorating in primary school in Chikun Local Government Area. Consequently, pupils become disenchanted and apathetic toward learning.
As such it becomes imperative to reappraise the impact of effective planning on teaching and learning process in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State. The main pedagogical problems to consider is: Does effective planning have a beneficial effect on teaching and learning?
Hence, the subject matter of this research the impact of effective planning on teaching and learning process becomes an empirical problem worthy of investigation.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of the study is to examine the impact of effective planning on teaching and learning process in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State. The specific objectives are:
i. To examine the beneficial effect of planning on teaching.
ii. To evaluate how planning affect learning.
iii. To identify the problems militating against planning in schools in the area of the study.
iv. To proffer possible solutions to the identified problems affecting effective planning in schools in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State.
1.4 Research Questions
i. What are the beneficial effect of planning on teaching?
ii. How does planning affects learning?
iii. What are the problems militating against planning in schools?
v. What are the possible solutions to this problems?
1.5 Significance of the study
The study will be useful to schools in Chikun Local Government Areas in particular and other schools in Kaduna and indeed Nigeria. Especially as they utilize the findings of this study as a basis for lesson, planning, administrative planning and general planning of school management. The study will be a good reference material for students, scholars and individuals undertaking similar research. It can be used as a spring board to undertake their own research.
1.6 Basic Assumptions
1. Planning enhances teaching and learning in primary schools in Chikun Local Government Area.
2. Planning give direction to teachers in Chikun Local Government Area.
3. Planning lead to the actualization of the educational objective of Chikun Local Government Area.
4. Education planning in school is confronted with problems of inadequate data and skilled personnel in Chikun Local Government Area from twelve selected primary schools with a total population of 211 respondents using the Crusious (2001) sample size technique which advocate for ten percent of the total population as the appropriate sample size.
1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The study covers an examination of the impact of planning on teaching and learning process in twelve selected primary schools from in Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State. To this end, the study examines the beneficial effect of planning on teaching as well as learning. The study equally identify the problems militating against effective planning in schools in Chikun Local Government Area as well as making recommendation to the barriers to effective planning’s in schools.
Study covers a time from 2011 to 2012 being the timeframe for this study.
1.8 Definition of Terms
• Planning: The process of setting objectives and the means to attain educational goals.
• Curriculum: Sequence of teaching and learning in form of plans and intentions.
• Lesson plan: Setting specific objective in order to effectively teach what is in a scheme of work.
• Policy: Framework formulated in order to actualized educational attainment in a state.
• Forcast: Projection into future goal attainment in school.