THE IMPACT OF SECURITY CHALLENGES ON THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL SPHERE OF AKWA –IBOM SOCIETY


THE IMPACT OF SECURITY CHALLENGES ON THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL SPHERE OF AKWA –IBOM SOCIETY

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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
To uncover the main factors that shape the political behaviour of individuals in particular and groups in general has been fundamental to scholars of political science over the years. The reason for this lays on the assumption that the aggregate political behaviour of individuals or groups within a specific geographical construct determines the political culture in that environment at the sub-level and the political system at large. Furthermore, it explains how receptive the group in question would be to the policies of government and to a large extent their willingness to participate in the affairs of governance. Security Challenges

Political behaviour is “the patterns of behaviour which affect or are intended to affect decisional outcomes of government (Milbrath 1965:1). For behaviour to affect decisional outcomes of government, it must be exhibited through some activity and within a particular process (Ikpe 2010:409). It concerns itself therefore with political participation and political non-participation (apathy) within a political system. And what determines or shapes political behaviour is important since it is a sine quo non in understanding fully the political dynamics of a political system. Situated within these advances, this study sets out to investigate the influence of educational level and its linkage with political behaviour. Security Challenges

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The long period of military rule in Nigeria before the advent of the fourth republic in 1999 has always been pointed by various scholars to be the bane of the democratization process in Nigeria (see, Alapiki 2005; Abia 2006; Otoghagua 2007). The reason for this perception is that this period of military rule led to an alteration in the political order-the institutions, structures and perceptions. The high handedness of the elite class that took over from the military reduced the democratic process to a winner-take-all and a do-or-die game which is characterized by election rigging, corruption and other indices of a poor electoral process. Given this observation many opined that the political behaviours of Nigeria voters has been shaped to conform by false practices and influenced by it. In the other hand some scholars insist that in the face of corruption, political behaviour in Nigeria is to a large extent shaped by other variables (Ikpe 2000, 2009). Armed with this observation, this study sets out to investigate educational level and political behaviour, using ward II Oku in Uyo, Nigeria as its case study. Security Challenges

1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following questions will be provided answers to by this study:
1. Do individual educational level affects the person’s level of political participation/non –participation?
2. Are there disparity between educated and non-educated persons on their perception of an ideal candidate?
3. Are there disparity in the behaviour of educated and non-educated individuals in a vote-for-money scenario?
4. Do educational level influences an individual’s tendency to participate in electoral violence?

1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This research sets out to achieve the following objectives
1. To investigate if there exist a relationship between education and level of political participation/non participation.
2. To examine the disparity between educated and non-educated persons perception of the characteristics of an ideal candidate.
3. To explore the disparity in the behaviour of educated and non-educated individuals in a vote-for-money scenario.
4. To determine if educational level influences an individual’s tendency to participate in electoral violence.

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