1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Movies are a term that encompasses individual motion picture, the field of movies as an art form, and the motion picture industry. Movies are produced by recording images with cameras, or by creating image using animation or special effects.
Movies are cultural artifacts created by special cultures which reflect those cultures, and in turn affects them. Movie is entertainment, and a powerful method for educating or indoctrinating citizens.
The visual elements of cinema give motion pictures a universal power of communication. Traditional movies are made up of a series of individual images called frames. When these images are shown rapidly in succession, a viewer has the illusion that motion is occurring. The viewer cannot see the flickering between the frame due to an effect known as persistence of vision. (i.e. a situation whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after the source has been removed.) Viewers perceive motion due to a psychological effect called beta movement. The origin of the name “movies” come from the fact that photographic movies (also called movie stock) has that historically been the primary medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. In Nigeria, the cinema is a developing industry that has become increasingly productive in recent years. Although Nigerian movies have been produced since 1960s, the rise of digital cinema has resulted in growing video movie industry.
The Nigeria video feature movie industry is sometimes known as Nollywood. In areas of presentation, Nigeria early movies has presented common occurrences prevalence in Nigeria movie and tropical at that time, for instance, in “Kongi’s Harvest,” the first Nigeria movie which has a satirical commentary on the Nigeria’s first republic, the intrigue of power and politics in a newly independent state was vividly portrayed.
Unlike recent productions, early African movies presented true life situation and environment. It didn’t employ the special effect since there were computers to aid the technology. The early movies were landmarks production because of the language used and the novelty of the medium. Thus they were considered best in the history of movies in Nigeria and Africa in general.
Since movies combined sight and sound, it makes double impact in affecting the psychology of one who is involve in the sensory process of watching the movies (Adesanye, 1997:15). This impact could be either positive or negative. The tasks before the movie industry is affecting the society through its audience, is presented and who it is presented are very necessary for the sake of the audience and societal development.
1.2 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
In pre-colonial Nigeria, the village folktale and festivals provided enough entertainments. The grandparents used to put out mats and bamboo seats outside and tell stories whenever the moon hit in the sky.
The story teller started to die when the colonial maters brought the cinema. This marked the advent and development of movie in Nigeria. The colonial maters cinema presented movie of the western colonies and colonial rule, and were initially presented in the English Language.
The colonial cinema was not good enough for the Nigerian people because it presented only what would interest the colonial society. The cinema was also used as a medium through which the information was disseminated. There was also cinema for instructions and documents. The colonial government first brought instrumental cinema to Nigeria in the 1920s to counter the influence of Nollywood movies in it colonies. Therefore, according to Shaka (2000:1), through the successful pioneering efforts of William Seller, the use of movie as a medium of instruction and propaganda of government programmes was extended to other British territories. Inspite of its success, serious effort was made to institutionalized cinema until 1939 when the colonial movie unit (CFU) was established.
The colonial movie unit on its establishment in 1939 by the ministry of information became not a medium for further informing and educating the colonies, rather it was for furtherance of British defense and war strategies in the ongoing world war 11. It was used as a medium of spreading war propaganda in the colonies in aid of the British was effort.
The propaganda movie went on until after the war when the central offices of information (COI) replace the ministry of information (MOI). Therefore the colonial movie unit became a unit or department of the central office of information between 1945 and 1950, the British colonial movie unit established about twelve movies producing units in Africa including a movie training school.
This development could not blind the African movie scholars as they saw the colonial movie unit instructional movie could not be separated or distinguished from propaganda against the black race. The cinema continued in Nigeria but on a different pedestal and under the supervision of a different body. The distribution system continued to be largely closed to indigenous movie masters, supplying American, Indian and Chinese movies. This was in 1970s when the Nigeria feature production began.
British colonial movie unit helped in introducing some cinematic technology and skills in the country. The early Nigerian movie had some connection with African. Americans, one of which is Ossie Davis who has directed several movies in Nigeria in the 1970s with (Okome, 1995:25). The Nigerian movie industry came into existence as revolt against colonialism, since movies is believed to be most potent weapon by which one identifies a nation. Its images, culture, aspiration and achievement. The early Nigerian movie – makers tried to impress these ideas on the minds of the audience through their movies. The ability of the movie to combine sight and sound (seeing and hearing) is to create its powerful attribute.
The establishment of movie industry in Nigeria was to serve as a tool for moral and cultural instructions and projections in the hands of those who are anxious to improve their country. One may not be totally wrong to say that the Nigeria movie industry is the process of projecting this rich cultural heritage has also helped to upset the psychology of audience especially the children audience. Due to the impact created, the Nigerian movie and video censors board was established to classify movie in Nigeria. One of the criteria which the board uses is censoring movie is moral standards, that is movie that are meant for mature audience and those once children can watch. But Nigerian Children still watch those movies meant for adults because their parents unwillingly make those movies available at home. It is therefore in view of this that this study focuses on the influence of home video on the children.
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
It could be wrong to say that Nigeria home movie industry in running smoothly without any problem. The industry is faced with problems despite its prospect. Indiscriminate movie production may not necessarily be a problem to the industry, rather a competition between the private movie makers. Productions are not only rushed to meet up with competition, but there is also a problem of lack of qualitative script writing in many of the movie they produce.
The above bits sum up to a big problem of discriminate presentation of movies packed with charms, magic and fetish items, in about every ten to twelve movies released in Nigeria, about eight present these and they are either used for killing, getting rich or for protection. Since movies are meant to portray the culture and tradition of people, this implies that every average Nigerian is a potential charmer, doctor or cultist.
The increase in the number of cults in higher institution even permeating the secondary school level is alarming. Violence has been the order of the day in Nigerian citadel of learning, of this anti-social behaviour like cultism, prostitution, crime, etc among secondary school student. There is popular aphorisms which posit that there is no smoke without fire: as a result, the following become pertinent. How do Nigeria video movie influence secondary school student in Enugu South L.G.A.
1.4 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objectives of carrying out this study are as follows:
1. To determine how Nigerian home video movies influence secondary school student in Enugu South L.G.A
2. To find out the relationship between viewing of home video movies by the secondary school student and their involvement in anti-social behaviour
3. To find out if home video movies can help in curbing social ills in our society
4. To find out whether the home video movies have positive values for the youth, especially secondary school student
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
This study attempts to answer the following questions
1. How do Nigerian home video movies influence secondary school student in Enugu South L.G.A?
2. Is there any relationship between viewing of the home video movies by secondary school student and their involvement in anti – social behaviour?
3. Do video movies produced in Nigeria have positive values for the children and youths especially secondary school student?
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study dwells more on the important of qualitative home video production and the Influence of immoral once on the children audience. This study will be an indispensable contribution to knowledge by making positive inputs in developing literature on movie production and presentation.
Apart from being an indispensable contribution to knowledge, it is important because it will expose the problem. Some movies pose to their audiences. It is also present or suggests possible ways to the movie industry in its future production of movie that will aid social development and good moral upbringing for its child audience.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study centres on Nigeria home video or movies industry as well as its effect or influence on children. This study will not only observe the trends in the different movies produced in Nigeria, but will further give a critical appraisal of the Nigeria movies industry, its concept, its production, and general presentation. This study will also appraise studies on the influence of movies on children in other countries. The numbers of school utilized in this study are four secondary schools in Etinan L.G.A.
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This work is limited to the Nigerian movie industry, with particular reference to the children audience (student). Lack of finance and transportation problems acted as a barrier in the course of carrying out the research. The unco-operative attitude of some students to the questionnaires to them as a constraint to the researcher. The teachers and principals of their schools constituted a major problem (time wastage) in terms of delaying the researcher in the course of issuing out questionnaires to the students due to the fact that they wanted to ascertain the authenticity of my identify as a university of Etinan student and the purpose of the research.
1.9 DEFINITIONS OF OPERATIONAL TERMS
CHILDREN: The term refers to the offspring or group of people distinct from the adult that must be protected in a family and society in general. It also refers to a boy or a girl varying in age and behaviour free from adult responsibilities, i.e. between the age of ten and eighteen years.
PSYCHOLOGY: This refers to a study of human behaviour, conscience, mental and emotional process in relations to physical activities of the body. In this research, it refers to the reaction of the human mind in relation to visual or physical perception or activities around its environment with particular reference to student
AUDIENCE: For this research, audience means anyone (student who is exposed to any image shown on the screen.
HOME VIDEO: Movies watched at home mainly for entertainment and education.