1.1 Background of the Study
The term institutional leadership came into light in the 20th century but was known as school leadership or educational leadership. This was as a result of several reasons. Demands were made on schools for higher levels of pupil achievement, and schools were expected to improve and reform their programmes and operations. These expectations were accompanied by calls for accountability at the school level. Maintenance of the status quo was no longer considered acceptable. Administration and management which were the terms that connote stability through the exercise of control and supervision, were debunked for the concept of leadership because it conveys dynamism and pro-activity.
Initially, the school leader performed clerical functions and focused on assisting the board of education with day-to-day details of running the school. At the turn of the 20th century, states began to develop common curriculum for public schools with school leaders fulfilling the role of teacher-scholar or master educator who had added an emphasis on curricular and instructional matters to school operations. In the early 20th century, the industrial revolution affected the role of school leaders by shifting emphasis to expert manager with efficiency in handling non-instructional tasks such as budget, facility, and transportation (Wikipedia, 2014). The early 1980s initiated the change that has continued through today with the school leader viewed as instructional leaders. At the primary level, the instructional leader is known as the headmaster or head mistress; at the secondary level is known as the principal; at the tertiary level is known as the vice-chancellor, provost or rector; at the Faculty level is known as Dean; and at the department level is known as Head of Department (H.O.D).
For decades, teacher evaluations were little more than a bureaucratic exercise that failed to recognize either excellence or mediocrity in teaching. As such, evaluation represented a missed opportunity for giving teachers valuable feedback that could help them improve their practice.
In recent times, over two-thirds of higher institutions in Akwa Ibom State (AKS) have made significant changes to how teachers are evaluated. This was motivated by incentives available through the federal programmes and Teacher Incentive Fund (T.I.F).
The push for improving teaching quality in higher education was engineered by modern school reform movement in America. The movement’s first phase began with the 1983 publication of “A Nation at Risk” by the National Commission on Excellence in Education (NCEE) and concentrated on such issues like lengthening the school year and requiring more academic courses. The second phase, which began in the 1990s and continues to this day, focuses on the role of challenging academic standards for students and the use of high-stakes assessment of those standards. The success of an educational enterprise particularly in terms of quality depends to a large extent, on the regular supply of teachers in adequate quantity and quality. The training and production of the manpower required for the attainment of national educational objectives depend on the quality and quantity of teachers.
The origin and development of teacher education in the country can be traced to the western education, propagated by the various church missions such as the church Missionary society (CMS), the church of Scotland (Presbyterian), the Roman Catholic and the Wesleyan Methodist between 1842 and 1897 (Jekayinfa, 2014). The missionaries trained their teachers through the pupil-teacher system (Adeyinka, 1971), and the first teacher training college known as the training institution was established in Abeokuta in 1859 by the church missionary society (CMS) (Jekayinfa, 2014). The phelp-stokes report and the Ashby commission’s report really turned things around in the Nigerian education system. The introduction of the 6-3-3-4 education system increased the need for a new orientation of teachers that would posses the basic knowledge and skills to teach the curriculum.
The national policy on education states that all teachers in the nation’s educational institutions, from pre-primary to university, would be professionally trained. The implication is that more teachers’ education programmes and tertiary institutions would be established for the training of these teachers. In 1957, the university college, Ibadan introduced a one-year course for graduates leading to a diploma of education. In 1961, the university started a one-year associateship course for selected Grade II teachers who would take over the headship of primary schools after the successful completion of their studies (Fafunwa, 1974). Also, the Ashby commission’s recommendation for teacher’s grade I colleges was modified to a new programme and a new certificate-the Nigerian certificate in education (N.C.E) (Jekayinfa, 2014). The programme was meant for the training and preparation of teachers for the lower forms of secondary schools, and the teacher training colleges. The schools were called the “Advanced Teachers’ Colleges”. They were established in Lagos 1962, Ibadan 1962 (but transferred to Ondo where it became the Adeyemi College of Education), Owerrri 1963, Zaria 1962, Kano 1964 and Abraka 1968 (Taiwo, 1986). Admission to these advanced teacher’s colleges was open to candidates who held either the Teachers’ grade II certificate and passed in two subjects at the ordinary level of the general Certificate of Education (GCE), or West African School Certificate with credit in at least two subjects, or the G.C.E (O level) in five subjects including English Language. According to Taiwo (1986) a candidate must pass a final examination in two science or two arts subjects, education and practical teaching, and must have passed in ancillary subjects like general English, Library work, Health and Physical Education offered during the programme. Instructional Leadership
The Bachelor of Art (B.A) and Bachelor of Science in Education, B.Sc (Ed.) according to Fafunwa (1974) were launched at the University of Nigeria, Nsukka in September 1961. The University of Ibadan followed in 1963, Ahmadu Bellow University in 1964, the university of Lagos in 1965 and the University of Ife (now Obafemi Awolowo University) Ile-Ife, in 1967. All these teachers’ programmes were meant to instill in the learners the requisite teaching qualities which are subject balance, good use of time, relevant aims, language policy, pedagogic approaches, and learning from assessment. Instructional Leadership
Teachers in higher institutions are indispensible resource for effective implementation and realization of educational goals and objectives in the institutions. They interpret and implement the curriculum designed for higher education at the practical level of the classroom (Etudor-Eyo & Akpan, 2014). The importance of teachers in national development led the Federal government of Nigeria (FGN) to come up with certain goals for teacher education including the production of highly motivated, conscientious and efficient classroom teachers for all levels of education; encouraging the spirit of enquiry and creativity in teachers; helping teachers to fit into social life of the community and the society at large and enhance their commitment to national goals; providing teachers with the intellectual and professional background adequate for their assignment and make them adaptable to changing situations; and enhancing teachers’ commitment to the teaching profession (FRN,2004). Instructional Leadership
The poor performance of students in examinations (both internal and external) coupled with increasing rate of unemployment of University graduates as a result of poorly acquired skills made the Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN) to state that “all teachers in tertiary institutions shall be required to undergo training in the methods and techniques of teaching”. Arubayi (2003), asserts that the quality level of lecturers in higher institutions to a great extent determines the quality of graduates. The drive for this quality in higher institutions prompted the establishment of National Universities Commission (NUC) in 1962, to maintain standard and uniformity (Etudo-Eyo & Akpan, 2014). The commission is responsible for the maintenance of teachers’ quality, especially in terms of qualification. To this end, Ayeni (2009) recommended that institutions should be conversant with the quality of teachers required to realize education policy objectives. Despite this effort by the government there seems to be a problem in teaching quality of teachers. Some lecturers neither use proper teaching method, nor use adequate instructional materials. Others hardly attend lectures and do not cover their course contents, while others are not vibrant in class and lack good classroom management and communicating skills. Some researchers have studied to improve teaching quality with variable like student and peer-rating (Etudor-Eyo & Akpan 2014). Instructional leadership (Quint, Akey, Rappaort & Willer 2007), quality of academic staff (Idaka & Joshua 2007), student expectations of their lecturer (Adomi 2005) and lecturer quantity and gender (Arubayi 2009). These studies notwithstanding, the problem seems to increase. This therefore justifies the need for this study on how instructional leadership predicts teaching quality in higher institutions in Akwa Ibom State. Instructional Leadership is the process of leading learning communities in other to achieve educational objective. While Teaching Quality is an attribute technique and a standard that qualify someone as a teacher. Instructional Leadership