1.1 Background of The Study
The search for efficient and effective delivery of instructions to Students has always been major concern of Science Educators. This is so as a result of repeated mass failure recorded in Mathematics and other Science subjects in Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE) and West African Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination (WASSCE). Poor academic performance in Mathematics could be attributed to many factors among which teacher’s strategy itself was considered as an important factor. Among other factors that could be responsible for this failure, are the instrumental materials which definitely must have a significant role to play in teaching and learning processes.
The importance of instrumental materials in teaching and learning is too obvious to be overemphasized. A lot has been written to show the indispensable role of instrumental materials in curricular implementation. According to Onyejemezi (2007), Ogunranti (2008) and Afolajic (2009), these authors point out that instructional materials increase the rate of learning, save the teacher time and effort increase learners interest and facilitate retraction of what is learned. To further show the importance of instructional materials, Iegede, Okata, Eniayelu (2011), reported factors responsible for poor performance in Science, Technology and Mathematics which include poor laboratory facilities, inappropriate teaching methods and inadequate number of learning facilities in schools as against consistent increase in number of students.
In condition of insufficient supply of instructional materials by the government, improvised materials can also serve similar role of simplifying explanations given by teachers. Improvisations of instructional materials need the effort of Mathematics teachers for its realization. Bassey (2012) and Omosewo (2013) stated that many Nigerians Science teachers were aware of possibility of improvisation. They also noted that few teachers practice while majority depends on imported equipment and claim that improvisation is time consuming and often depleting.
Whether instructional materials are classified as improvised or imported, the most important effect of these materials is to assist in achieving the stated behavioural objectives when evaluated at the end of a lesson or programme. These findings refer generally to teaching Science subjects in Nigerian Schools. One is not sure what the situation is with Mathematics teachers in Akwa Ibom State. Hence, this Study on teacher’s use of instructional materials on Junior Secondary School III students’ Academic Performance in Mathematics in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area worth investigating.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
With regard to different views held on importance of instructional materials by different authors and the observed progressive decline in Secondary School Students’ academic performance in Mathematics in Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE) and West African Senior School Certificate Examination (WASSCE), there is need to further investigate the roles of instructional materials utilization on the academic performance of junior Secondary School III Students in Mathematics in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The Study investigated instructional materials utilization on junior Secondary III Student’s performance in Mathematics in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. The Study is defined to achieve the following objectives.
1. To examine the difference in the performance of Students taught Mathematics using instructional materials and those taught without instructional materials.
2. To determine the differences in pre-test and post-test scores of Students taught with instructional materials
3. To examine the difference between the post-test scores of male and female Students taught with instructional materials.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The use of various instructional materials to examine the achievement of Educational objectives in Mathematics need not be overemphasized. The findings of this Study will be useful to many people. Teachers will get to understand better, the level of Students performance in mathematics through the use of instructional materials. Educational authorities may use the findings of this Study to stress to teachers during seminars and workshops the steps of instructional materials to emphasize in the course of teaching Mathematics in the junior Secondary School Classes. Textbooks writers on instructional materials can make the outcome of this Study a reference point in their books while discussing matters relating to methodology and Students performance. Finally, the Students will benefits because the finding of this Study will encourage Mathematics teachers to use the instructional materials in the Study, when those instructional materials are used; the Students are likely to perform more better in mathematics.
1.5 Research Questions
The following research questions were formulated to guide the Study.
1. Is there any significant difference between Students taught with instructional materials?
2. Is there any significant difference between pre-test scores and post-test scores of Students taught with instructional materials?
3. Is there any significant difference between the post-test scores of the male and female Students taught with instructional materials?
1.6 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were formulated to guide the research Study.
1. There is no significant difference between the performance of Jss3 Students taught Mathematics with instructional materials and those without instructional materials
2. There is no significant difference between pre-test scores and post-test scores of Jss3 Students taught with instructional materials
3. There is no significant difference between post-test scores of male and female Students of Jss3 taught with instructional materials.
1.7 Basic Assumption
For the purpose of this Study, the following assumption was made.
Teachers hardly use different instructional materials in the course of teaching Mathematics to junior Secondary School III Students.
1.8 Delimitation of the Study
The Study is delimited to the assessment of the contributions of instructional materials utilization on the academic performance of Jss3 Students in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. Although many instructional materials may contribute to Students performance in Mathematics, for the purpose of this Study, only computer, Mathematical games, Models and realia’s were selected for investigation. Specifically, the scope of the Study covers only sample of Students in junior Secondary III from four Schools in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area. The Study was conducted in the 2014/2015 School year.
1.9 Limitations of the Study
The study was demanding at different facts and the lean financial resources available would not sustain wider courage. The administrative polities to unvalidated data gathering instruments, time, sampling technique and the unwillingness of the schools visited to release the students constituted some of the major constrain to the study.
1.10 Definition of Operational Terms
Certain terms used in the Study required operational definitions; such terms are defined as shown below:
Instructional Materials: These are tools locally made or imported that could make tremendous enhancement of lesson impact if intelligently used. Four of such selected for the Study include; Mathematical game, Computer, Models and Realia.
Students’ performance in Mathematics: this is a measure of Students’ achievement and learning, such as students scores on pre-test and post-test.
Computer: This is an electronic machine that stores certain Mathematical software’s that are used to do calculations during a Mathematics lesson to provide enjoyment and recreation and at the same time stimulate Mathematical thinking.
Mathematical Models: These are three dimensional man-made objects which are representatives of real objects. They offer concrete information’s to the learners and some could be manipulated dismantled, enlarged and reduced. They are useful for instructions and learning.
Realias: these are also three-dimensional objects, they are similar to the models but differ in the sense that they are real objects that can be destroyed in the process of dismantling. They are three dimensional in that they have length, breadth and depth or height. Examples are Cuboids, Cubes etc.
Pre-test: This is a test given to Students before the administration of instructional program or segment.
Post-test: This is a test given to students after completion of an instructional program, or segment and often used in conjunction with a pre-test to measure the achievement and the effectiveness of the program.
Independent Samples: These are samples which are randomly formed.