1.1 Background to the Study
According to Deyemi and Adu (2010) it is widely accepted that education is one of the leading instruments for promoting economic development as it encompasses some processes individuals go through to help them develop and utilize their potentials. Further, Okeke (2007) points out that through education, individuals acquire knowledge skills and attitude for effective living. This is the reason why in all modern nations, investment in education of the youths in considered most vital. According to Onsomu et al (2006) secondary education is an important subsector of education in the preparation of human capital for development and precision of life opportunities as it provides a vital link between basic education and the world of work on one hard and further training on the other. According to Reche et al (2012) Nigeria’s education system is dominated by examination oriented teaching, where passing examination is the only benchmark by for performance because there is no internal system of monitoring learning achievement at other levels within an education cycle. Further, manifestations of quality education have to do with literary cognitive abilities, performance and progression to higher levels of learning. However, quality cannot be achieved without learning resources which play an important role in the achievement of educational goals and objectives. According to Adeogun an Ofisila (2008), educational learning resources can be categorized into four groups that is material, physical, financial and human resources learning resources according to Usman (2007) are central to the educational process because they play an important role in the achievement of educational goals and objectives since they facilitate teachers work and accelerate learning on the part of the students.
Hallack (1990) emphasized that the availability of relevant learning resources contribute to academic achievement and that unattractive school buildings crowded classrooms, non availability of play grounds workshop for practical and surroundings that have no aesthetic beauty can contribute to poor performance.
Further, Babayomi (1999) in his study note very strongly that private schools because of availability and adequate of teaching and learning resources performance better than, public schools.
Hoop (2010) notes that education in most sub-Saharan countries faces chronic shortage in physical and human resources. According to him, rather than distributing limited resources available for secondary education uniformly across schools, many governments allocate a relatively large share of available resources to selected number of secondary schools.
Similarly, finding from World Bank (2008) in a study on provision of text books and physical resources in secondary schools in sub-Sahara African countries revealed that urban secondary schools have better text book supplies and physical facilities than those in the rural areas.
Similarly an earlier study by Fabunmi (1997) on differential allocation of learning resources and secondary school academic performance in Edo state noted that there was a common feature facilities of deference in allocation of facilities to schools. The same thing applicable to teachers. It is very vital to have sufficient and adequate.
Human resources in term of teachers quality for the teaching curriculum without teachers as implementing factors the goals of education can never be achieved.
In order to achieve a just and egalitarian society as spelt out in the Nigeria national policy of education (1981) school should be properly and uniformly equipped to promote sound and effective teaching. Suitable text books qualified teachers, workshops, libraries laboratories which are adequate should also be evenly distributed to schools.
Scarcity of these, according to Comb (1970) will constraint educational system from responding more fully to new demands. In order to raise the quality of education its efficiency and productivity, better learning resources are needed. Knezewich (1975) also stressed the importance of having appropriate personnel plan and adequate physical facilities to support educational effort. This study is to asses learning resources availability on the academic performance of students in introductory technology in secondary schools in Uyo local government area.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The Nigerian education system is dominated by examination oriented teaching where by passing examination is the only landmark for performance as where is no internal system of monitoring learning achievements another an educational cycle. The academic performance of students in introductory technology in secondary schools in Uyo Local Government Area in both internal and external examination (basic education certificate examination) has remained poor over the years.
This poor performance has equally affected the students performance in physics at the senior secondary schools since introductory technology in the foundation of physics.
Prior to the introduction of free and compulsory education in Akwa Ibom state in 2008 by governor God wills Obot Alpabio, the learning resources in secondary schools in the state has been inadequate specially for science and technology. Many public secondary schools in the state are still without well equipped introductory technology workshop which helps to facilitate good and learning and understanding of the subject. In addition shortage of human resources is also a very big nut to crack in the public and even private schools especially in introductory technology.
Thus, this study was set to assess the availability and utilization of learning resources like text book workshops and technical tools and teachers of introductory technology in Uyo local government area in Akwa Ibom State.
Purpose of the Study
The study aims to-
1. Investigate whether availability of learning resources has any relationship on academic performance of students in introductory technology
2. Investigate if there is a difference in academic performance between student from urban and rural schools in introductory technology.
3. Investigate whether there is relationship between teacher-student ratio and academic performance of students academic in introductory technology.
1. Does availability of learning resources have any relationship on academic performance of students in introductory technology?
2. Does school location (Urban/rural) has any relationship on academic performance of students in introductory technology?
3. Does teacher-students ratio affect academic performance of students in introductory technology?
1.3 Scope and Delimitation of the Study
This study is designed to examine learning resources availability on the academic performance of students in introductory technology (Basic technology).
The study aims at finding it whether learning resources availability such as teachers, text books, technical workshop with tools have any positive influence on the academic performance of students in introductory technology.
The study is limited in assessment of some selected public and private schools in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom state.
1.4 Definition of Operational Terms
(i) Learning resources: physical, human, materials and financial inputs in the teaching-learning process.
(ii) Availability: the quality of being available in an uncountable of quantity.
(iii) Technology: the study of or a collection of techniques
(iv) Private schools: schools owned by an individual or an organization.
(v) Public schools: these are schools own by the government
(vi) Technical workshop: this is a room where things are manufactured or industrial work are done.