The study investigated managerial variables and non-teaching staff job performance in secondary schools in Uyo L.G.A. The study adopted descriptive survey design, while a simple random sampling technique was used to select the respondents. The instrument for data collection was administered to 25 secondary school non-teaching staff in the study area and the responses from them were used for the study. The instruments used for data collection were tagged “Managerial Variables and Non-Teaching Staff Job Performance Questionnaire (MVNTSJP)” Data collected were analyzed using Pearson Product Correlation analysis. The results of the data analysis were significant and from the results of the analysis it was observed that there was significant relationship between principal’s communication ability and non-teaching staff job performance, supervisory strategy of principals had a significant relationship with non-teaching staff job performance. Principal Motivation Strategy also had a significant relationship with non-teaching staff job performance. Finally, Principal Decision-Making was seen having much relationship with Non-Teaching Staff Job Performance. The recommendations were that Principal managerial variables should be seen by all as a panacea for high productivity in not only the school administration but also in any other sector of the school. Hence, it should be practiced by all levels of management in order to quickly fast track and meet up with the objectives of the school and Non-teaching staff should be made to appreciate the philosophy of managerial variable by making sure that it is both development and reamed-driven in nature.
1.1. Background of the study
Educational administration particularly of the secondary schools involves the interpretation of policy and translating them into executive actions. It sets educational standards and a goal establishes the policies and procedures required to achieve them. However, it is the responsibility of non-teaching staff to implement these functions. non-teaching staff are expected to give appropriate academic and administrative leaderships in their respective departments. The nature of their daily role performance is influenced by the principal managerial factors.
It is quite obvious that the management competence of a principal as chief administrator in secondary schools determines the level of non-teaching staff performance and commitment to administrative task of the school. As a leader, the principals’ leadership competence in the areas of administration, communication and motivation of other employees are important in directing the thrust, dynamics and trends of administration. Thus, principals administrative, motivation and communication competence are apt in effective performance of non-teaching staff.
School administration requires high level of competences. Ekpenyong (1987) saw administrative effectiveness as the achievement of the goals and objectives of an organization or institutions. The achievement is measured in terms of the number of the students required for both junior and senior secondary schools, external examinations and the number of students that actually passed. It also includes the ability to control the school so that the students stay in classes during lesson periods. It includes the ability to motivate the students to take part in games, sports, school activities and excursions. It will also include how well they are serious in the schools are maintained. Instilling and maintaining discipline are major administrative competence required of a school chief administrator. Supervision is the art of over-seeing the administrative process, thereby making sure that the school is administered, managed and led in an effective manner to achieve the educational objectives (Oleforo, 2012).
According to Akinwumi (2002), the principal holds the major position in the programme of instructional improvement through effective and efficient supervision of non-teaching staff performance through various supervisory techniques, principals supervise and monitor the work and behaviour of non-teaching staff, in order to improve individual staff competencies no matter how proficient they are deemed to be. Nnabuo (1996) emphasized that the supervisory functions of principals in schools depend on the extent to which staff perform their tasks.
Effective supervision and the extent to which principals carry out their supervisory duties are based on sound principles which serve as a directive to positive actions that are aimed at improving job performance of non-teaching staff in the school system. Such principles include:
– The principle of co-operation which ensures the articulation and integration supervisor (principal) and the supervisee (non-teaching staff).
– The principle of flexibility calls for innovations as it increases and sustains the quality of work force.
– The principle of democracy which encourages good atmosphere of interaction and interrelationship between the supervisor (principal) and supervisee (non-teaching staff). This principle is consistent with the contention that human beings react more favourably when their opinion is sought.
Many principals in the schools ignore the supervision of instruction and this may lead to poor job performance in schools. Supervision is thus directed towards sustaining and ameliorating the non-teaching staff process by keeping records of teachers and students in schools. The philosophy underlying supervision is that all human beings in the educational system whether students, teachers, principals, administrators or supervisors are individuals of worth endowed with unique talents and capabilities. In fact supervision, according to National Policy on Education (FRN, 2004), is meant to ensure quality control through regular inspection and continuous monitoring of instructional and educational service. The principal oversees the activities of both teaching and non-teaching staff in the school system using various supervisory strategies ensuring that they conform to the generally accepted principles of education. He also sees that high standards are maintained in the school in accordance with laid down rules and regulations. According to Ojogwu (2001), supervision creates the awareness of sound education philosophies in teachers and non-teaching staff and makes them to be aware of educational policies and reforms in schools. Nakpodia (2006) defined supervision as that part of school administration which has particular pertinence for the appropriateness of instructional expectation (products) of educational programmes.
Communication is another variable that is much necessary in secondary school management. Communication is a life wire of any human organization. Robbins and Judge (2009) explained the relevance of communication. They stated that no individual, group, or organization can exist without communication… an idea, no matter how great, is useless until it is transmitted and understood by others”. This position firm-up to the fact that, an effective communication channel in the school administration is very important in ensuring non-teaching staff performance.
The principal as the head of school administration, must communicate effectively and efficiently his ideas, thoughts and decisions to the non-teaching staff as at when due. This will help in informing and educating them properly and equally make them to identify and support such ideas. Communication indeed, serves the function: “control, motivation, emotional expression, and information”. (Robbins and Judge, 2009).
Furthermore, motivation is considered a great factor that affects non-teaching staff job performance. A number of scholars agree to the fact that getting the best of workers in a formal organization requires necessary motivational tools. Robbins and Judge, 2009; Wiliams, Kondra and Vibert, 2004 and Mullins, 1985). Mbipom (2000) aptly enumerated the plight of non-teaching workforce in Nigerian secondary schools to include over work, poor motivation, poor supervision, poor remuneration and job dissatisfaction”. Particularly, in Uyo, the level of job dissatisfaction is high. This is attendant to poor and irregular salary and unfriendly principal managerial style. There is general disillusion and discontent thus, making school workforce always looking for the better paying jobs and their welfare is relegated to the background.
Understandably, an average employee requires a little extra push to keep him working with vigour, pride and interest (Nwankwo, 1982; Hodgetts, 1980). This therefore requires school management to ensure that necessary motivations are put in place to ensure that all non-teaching staff enhances their job performance.
Another management variable that equally affects the dynamics of non-teaching staff performance is ‘finance management’. The nature and manner in which the Principal manages school finances has direct effect on the performance of the school. Management of finances related to school plant, external examination registration, PTA monies, imprest money, and all other finances available to school constitute sources of challenge to school administration.
Even the most intrinsically motivated staff will become discouraged if the salary doesn’t pay the mortgage. But these factors may not have an extended motivational effect or lead to improved job performance. For example, a survey conducted by the National Centre for Education Statistics found that non-teaching staff compensation, including salary, benefits, and supplemental income, showed little relation to long-term satisfaction with administrative as a career (NCES 2000). This study is thus, undertaken to study the level of relationship between certain management variables and non-teaching staff job performance in Uyo local government area.