BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Inadequacy of manpower planning has been considered as one of the major underpin why most organization today are facing a chaotic situation as they did not at onset plan their workforce, neither did they have any systematic human resource (HR) or management programmed that put the organization goals first and the decay or dwindling of most organization is an evident as the level of frustration is equally high: and the reality Goetz (1989). However, the cause of this unfortunate development is primarily attributed to lack of proper and effective manpower planning. If not, what else can best explain the sharp increase in the workers strength as soon as any new chief executive emerges.
“For instance, in departmental organization like ministries, four directors are found in one obscure room doing nothing and other junior workers are satisfied to find a place under a mango tree located around the premises “Onah (2008). Indeed manpower planning otherwise called Human resource (HR) planning is of great significant to organizational growth, even in the socio-economic development of any nation, its significant cannot be over emphasized.
Human Resource (HR) are the totality of human potentials (knowledge, skills, attitude, energy and technology) inherent within a nation’s human resource stock and whose combined effect, if properly developed and harnessed would yield a high level of productivity. Economic Commission for Africa,” ECA” (1989). In other words, the term connotes man in relationship to the world of work which involves producing goods and services of all kinds in the social, political, cultural and economic development nations.
Harbson (2000) agreed that the wealth of nations (in economic term) can be expressed in terms of the level of development and effectiveness in utilization of human energies, skills and knowledge for useful purposes. Therefore, it is pertinent to say, that the success of any organization depend on the great deal on level of skilled manpower maintained by such organization and skill can only be acquired through a well planned systematic training and evaluation programmed established by the organization.
As a result of the plethora of changes occurring in organization work environment caused mainly by technological innovation and evolution of new managerial techniques, it is pertient on the part of management to evolve a system of adapting and adjusting with the changes and the only situation is by establishing a training and educational programmed for its human resource to ensure an optimal utilization of their talents for effective and efficient operation of their enterprises.
Thus, the essence of manpower programmed is to enhances the welfare of workers by maximizing their skills and the equality and quantity of their employment opportunity and in so doing add to the organizational strength. Any organization that are able to acquire, plan, develop, stimulates and maintain outstanding workers will not only be effective but also efficient and their productivity level will certainly be higher both in quality and quantity, and this will enable them stay in doing business and reverse is the case in ineffective and inefficient organization. In addition, the level of development of any organization depends largely on the personality or the competency of the management staff. This characteristics emerges only if there is an extensive employee and organizational development. That is the reasons behind the fact that, an organization, after an employee has been recruited, selected and inducted, he or she must be developed to better fit the job and the organization.
This justifies the fact that no one is a perfect fit at the time of hiring, as such some training and education must take place to equip the employee to perform better at his or her assigned task. No matter the amount of capital invested in an organization, its success or failure still depends on the quality of people who plan and executes it programmes.
Money, machines and raw materials which are among the factors of production in organization cannot solely achieve result except the employee actively involves in order to realize set goals and objectives in the organization. Therefore, the quality of the manpower enhances or deters the realization of its goals and objectives. Such employee requires training in order to acquire the necessary skills to keep abreast with development if he must successfully play his roles.
However, manpower planning, according to Dunn and Stephen (1972:2) “refers to the evaluation and identification of human resource requirement of the activities that are planned in order to meet socio-economic goals of the society.” Consequently, manpower planning, according to dele (2010) undoubtedly constitutes the most valuable asset in any enterprises be it public or private. Until we acknowledge that, the expert in any particular job is most often the person performing it, we shall forever limit the potential of that person in terms of both his contribution to the organization and his personal development. Effective human resource planning therefore implies that sufficient manpower, with the right mixture of talent, is allowable in appropriate locations, performing their jobs when needed. As a matter of fact, manpower planning provides direction, reduces and minimizes waste and set standards.
Consequently, without people resources, knowledge, skills and ability there would be no performance (productive endeavor) upon which any anticipation of result can be based. This research work is conducted to examine manpower planning as a management tool for organizational growth with a particular focus on First Aluminium Nigeria Plc, Port-Harcourt.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Generally, organization are faced with several problems which differs in magnitude and complexity from one organization to another organization even with countries of the world. Among these problems may include how to achieve their overall goals and objective in an effective and efficient manner, the management of these organizations has immediate need on how to acquire, allocate and utilize the needed manpower. Omodia (2009) identified some of these problems to include lack of qualified, season and experienced resource managers in an organization, ability to obtain necessary data about human resources needs in an organization, problems of expatriates in a particular area of an organization, lack of adequate and modern facility for training and development of manpower in an organization, most importantly, problem of selection and placement due to lack of valid and reliable employment test to aid in the selection process, problem of tribalism, quota system etc. affect selection,. Finally, funding, organization lacks funds to meet the plan on human resource development.
However, with the above notion, the statement of the problem focus on how manpower planning can contribute to organizational growth with a particular focus to First Aluminium Nigeria Plc.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The following objectives were set out for study:
• To examines the roles of manpower planning in organizational growth in First Aluminum Nigeria, Plc.
• To identify the specific needs for manpower planning in First Aluminum Nigeria, Plc. .
• To investigates the method of manpower planning adopted by First Aluminum Nigeria Plc, Port-Harcourt
• To find out the critical factors that may affects manpower planning in operational efficiency in organizational growth in First Aluminum Plc, Port-Harcourt.
• To offer meaningful suggestion to enhances manpower planning in an organization in order to attract the right number of people required with the appropriate skills, expertise and competencies.
This research work were guides by the following research questions:
• To what extend does manpower planning contributes in the operational efficiency of the First Aluminium Nigeria Plc, Port-Harcourt?
• What are the specific needs for manpower planning in First Aluminium Nigeria, Plc?
• What methods of manpower planning are adopted in First Aluminium Nigeria Plc, Port-Harcourt?
• What are the specific needs for manpower planning in an organization?
• What measures could be recommended to enhance manpower planning in oder to attract the right number people required with the appropriate skills, expertise and competencies in an organization?
The following research hypothesis were formulated to guides this study:
• There is no significant relationship between manpower planning and organizational growth in First aluminum Nigeria, Plc.
• There is no significant relationship between the methods of manpower planning and organizational growths.
• There is no significant relationship between manpower planning and operational efficiency in First Aluminum Nigeria plc.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is of a general consensus that inspite of high level of education, employees must have attained. It is quite obvious that further training is required of an employee who is newly employed or otherwise the purpose of this further training is to acquire the needed skills that are required to perform that particular job upon employment.
Thus, this research work is significant since it benchmark or helps the company to check the current and future threat on her ability to perform and pick out specific issues that pertain to recruitment, selection, placement, training needs, productivity improvement, growth and succession planning. It equally facilitates the concept adopting an effective, efficient and manpower management strategies and programmes as a means towards enhancing organizational growth in First Aluminum Nigeria, Plc. The study is also significant since it reveals the desirability and methods of development of the manpower to be maintained by organization to ensure their effective and efficient operations. The findings and recommendation of this research work would be of great significant to the company and other company of the same organizational structure. It equally highlights the use of appropriate and adequate planning and controlling of the personnel within an organization. Finally, the materials of this study will serve as a source of reference to other researcher who may want to carryout further research on this same or similar topic.
SCOPE/DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study is restricted to First Aluminum Nigeria Plc,Port-Harcourt, Rivers State. Its concentration is on manpower planning as a management tool for achieving organization growth. However, the findings of the study will also cover both senior and junior employees.
The historical background will also be traced in relation to the company’s growth, achievement, expansion etc., the basic function and objective of manpower planning. Though, the study is restricted to only one company, but the findings and recommendations made at the end of the study may be applied to any company of the same organizational structure.
The study focuses on manpower planning practices of a company with a particular reference to First Aluminum Nigeria Plc, as an Aluminum Manufacturing Company situated in Port-Harcourt, Rivers State. Apart from this limitation or constraint, there are other factors that also served as a constraints such as financial constraint, time constraits etc.
Furthermore, the planning of manpower, alternatively human resources unlike other resources of production is quite unique and flexible. But, the application of different management practices, theories and policies posed some difficulties on this study.
The assumptions made were as follows;
• The assumptions was that as all questionnaires sent out would not completely be responded to 100%, but hopefully more than 70% would respond and return them.
• It was assumed that the data gathered by personal and oral interview were reliable and correct.
• It was also assumed that the questionnaire responses by the employees were correct and the respondents cooperated without any reservation by giving the required and reliable information.
• Finally, it was assumed that data gathered from the secondary sources, that is, libraries, publications, textbooks, journals and magazine were correct and accurate.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
• PLANNING: Williams (2000) sees planning as involves deciding what should be done, how it should be done and when it should be done in determining organizational goals and the means of achieving the goals of these organization. While Robbins(1988) considers planning as encompassing “defining the organization’s objectives or goals, establishing an overall strategy for achieving thesegoals and developing a comprehensive heirarchy of plans to integrate and co-ordinate activities.
• MANPOWER PLANNING: This refers to the process of determining the right number and quality of staff an organization would need over a given period of time and setting in motion the machinery for obtaining such staff without resources to panic measures.
• OPERATIONAL EFFICIENCY: This refers to the minimization of waste and maximization of resources capabilities in order to deliver quality products and services to customers.
• PRODUCTIVITY: This refers to the amount of output per unit of input (Labour, equipment and capital).
• EFFICIENCY: It refers to comparison of what is actually produced or performed with what can be achieved with the same consumption of resources (money, time, labour etc)
• HUB: This refers to a centre of activity (focal point) through which all others depend or are controlled.
• GROWTH: This refers to the process of becoming larger or longer or more numerous or more important. E.g increase in unemployment, the growth of population etc.
• DEVELOPMENT: This refers to the process whereby something or somebody is caused to grow gradually, to become or make something larger, more advanced or more organized.