1.1 Background to the study
Due to the different approaches to the definition of term “organization” problem seem to arise.
Simon (1976) sees organization as something that is draw on charts or recorded in elaborated manuals of job description he refers to it as a complex pattern of communication and relationship in a group of human beings in which member are given explanation of the ideas assumptions goals and attitude that go into decisions.
Nwankwo (1982) sees organization as an arrangement in which individuals activities are properly coordinated in order to achieve set objectives and also involves free flow of ideas and effective channels of communication.
Castelter (1962) explains it as a systematic plan for unifying the people activities to accomplish a unified purpose. Oxford Advanced Learners dictionary (8th edition) says that organization is a group of people who form a business, club, etc together in order to achieve a particular aim. In this study, an organization is arranged hierarchically and this type of organization, Duru (1997) is of the view that authority power and order flows from the person on top to the once down and responsibilities and reports goes from person down to the once up.
Organizational hierarchy is significantly involve in education sector as could be seen in the chain of hierarchy e.g. from the Commissioner – Paramount Secretary or Director General – Zonal Directors-School Principal – Dean of Studies – Senior Perfects (students). Activities in secondary schools administrations are coordinated in such a way that some factor contribute in raising the position of the high level officials. The factors include good academic qualifications, training and years of experience. This makes it that higher level officials are seen as superior to those of lower cadre.
This research work is to X-ray the secondary education system on Ikeja Local Government Area to see how administrative effectiveness can be attained, influenced and been enhanced via functional organization hierarchy and how it can affect the student academic performance.
1.2 Statement of the problem
In Ikeja Local Government Area, there is a problem of administrative effectiveness and lack of staff motivation on the side of secondary schools which results to poor student’s academic performance.
The survival of any organization is dependent largely on the quality of management or administrative services available. The common characteristic involved does not contribute as such only constitute problems. Problem is pose on how to determine the efficiency of the workers and the student academic performance. What are the instruments to be used to determine and measure the efficiency of this worker and students performance? For this reason, the Researcher decided to carry out a research on secondary schools in Ikeja Local Government Area.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
It is the intension of the researcher to:
i. Determine the essence of hierarchical organizational structure to the efficiency of an organization.
ii. Determine the administrative effectiveness on students’ academic performance.
iii. Examine the effect of bureaucracy in an organization
iv. Identify appropriate superior-subordinate relationship.
1.4 Research Questions
i. To what extent is hierarchical organizational structure essential to the efficiency of the organization?
ii. To what extent does bureaucracy affects the organization?
iii. Does the school administration has any effect on students performance?
iv. To what extent does superior subordinate relationship required for administrative effectiveness?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following hypothesis were formulated and tested in this study.
Ho: There is no significant relationship between organizational hierarchy and administration effectiveness.
Ho: There is no significant effect of bureaucracy on an organization.
Ho: There is no significant effect of school administration on student academic performance
Ho: There is no significant relationship between superior subordinate and administrative effectiveness
1.6 Significance of the Study
An X-ray of how organizational hierarchy effects administrative secondary education and civil servants in embarking on this project stands justifiable.
i. This project was embarked on, because it will share more light on the chain of command between the higher and lower level officials in education and other sectors.
ii. The researcher examined the performance of the different level of workers in the secondary education sector.
iii. The research will guide the test of time; it will stand or educate new workers who will wish to know the mode of aparandi in the secondary education sector.
iv. This research will also be a guide to other education students who may want to embark on a similar research.
v. Finally, the discoveries and recommendations of this will (to greater extent) help the secondary education board to come up to better and more efficient services rendering to the teachers and students even the public.
1.7 Scope of the study
Ikeja Local Government Area which also doubles as the capital of Lagos State lies between latitude 5.05 North and longitude 80 East, with a total population of 309,573 (Source 2006 National Census).
1.8 Delimitation of the study
This study focuses on how organizational hierarchy and administration effectiveness has affected the academic performance in secondary schools in Ikeja Local Government Area of Lagos State.
1.9 Limitation of the study
To say that this research was conducted without problem is not possible. Many problems were encountered in the course of the study. In the first place, it is tasking venture and in the light of this it took me time and energy to ensure that a standard and profitable work is achieved. Another problem was that of finance, this was in respect to transportation and accumulation of data. This sometimes led to a little delay of work; moreover, the economic crunch in the nation did not alleviate issues but aggravated them. Furthermore, the distribution and collection of the questionnaire was a bit tedious pulling them together was not an easy job.
Finally, the researcher encountered difficulties in the collection of literature and data, in availability of adequate and very recent material was a major problem.
1.10 Definition of terms
1. Organization: This is an entity comprising multiple people, such as an institution or an association that has a collective goal and limited to an external environment.
2. Hierarchical Organization: Is an organizational structure where every entity in the organization accepts one, is subordinate to a simple other entity.
3. Bureaucracy: Is an organization made up of many departments and divisions that are administered by lots of people.
4. Bureaucratic Organization: This is a form of management that has a pyramidal command structure. It is very organized with a high degree of formality in the way it operates.
5. Management: In business or an organization, management is the function that coordinates the efforts of people to accomplish goals and objectives by using available resources efficiently and effectively.
6. Management Effectiveness: This is an act where by the manager of any organization manages the resources of her organization efficiently and effectively and it is measure in the effectiveness of the organization in achieving the organizational goal.