1.1 Background of the Study
Technology is an increasingly significant part of the society children are growing in today. It is the important aspect of modern school life and has dramatically change the way teachers and students go about their daily activities. Technology and design lessons allow children and teenagers to be creative while also developing new skills and grasping an understanding of how things work.
Basic Technology can be defined as the branch of knowledge that deals with the creation and use of technical means and their interrelation with life, society and the environment, drawing upon such subjects as industrial arts, engineering, applied science and pure science.It is also seen as the purposeful application of information in the design, production and utilization of goods and services and in the organization of human activities. However, among various educational polices that had been put in place, the most effective one that adequately took care of the teaching of technology is the National policy on Education, by which Basic Technology was a major subject to be taught at the secondary school level. While students are exposed to Basic Technology at the Junior Secondary school level, theoretical aspects are combined with practical at the Senior Secondary Level.
Basic Technology as a prevocational and practical oriented subject therefore requires teaching resources in order that effective teaching and learning might take place. It requires a sort of training through “learning by imitation” so that learners will acquire skills and knowledge. Dike (1989) stated that Nigerians are not unaware of the importance of instructional materials for effective learning in the school system; yet it has not been effective because of non-availability of these materials.
Instructional Materials can further be seen as a deliberate organized pre-determined instructional objective between the instructor and learner (Ibe-Bassey, 1998), Hunt, 1980 is of the view that availability of instructional materials and equipment depends on the location of the school and makes instructors to learn more on the proper use of these materials.
A teacher is a reservoir and a transmitter of knowledge, believed to possess an unquestionable store of knowledge. A basic technology teacher therefore is an individual who has acquired professional training in technology education at an appropriate level and capable of imparting knowledge, attitude and skills to the learner (Ekong 2002).
Ekong further stressed that the basic technology teacher is expected to possess sterling qualities to be effective, informing his duties which include planning, instructing and coordinating of academic activities related to technology education.
However, non-availability of basic technology teachers in some schools lead to ineffective teaching and learning in basic technology which influence students’ attitude towards basic technology.
The issue of poor attitude of students to Basic Technology is another way of saying that there could be communication problem between the information given by the teacher and the leaner in technology education in Nigerian schools.
According to Ekong (1994), it should be born in mind that basic technology remains a very important instrument in every society and acts as a pivot that enables learners to acquire vocational skills sufficiency and to solve practical problems.
It therefore becomes necessary to compare the availability of resources and students’ attitude to basic technology in Uyo Local Government Area.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Despite efforts from educationists in the country for students to lay solid foundation in Basic Technology, the situation seems not to improve. The process in which this subject is taught and learnt in schools appears slow. Some students look at Basic Technology as a very difficult subject, especially when it involves practical work while others get scared by its volume of contents and concepts. There has been growing disaffection over the years concerning the poor attitude of students to Basic Technology and their poor academic performance in the subject.
Most secondary schools in Akwa Ibom state, especially the rural areas appear to be neglected. They lack accommodation, libraries, books, qualified teachers, workshops and workshop tools, equipment and machines. Also, most schools lack utilization of instructional materials either as basic hand tools, source of electricity supply, work piece, fumaces, workbenches, charts and simple machine tools for effective teaching and learning of Basic Technology. This lack of resources affect students’ interest on the subject, hence their performance in public examination in this subject.
As Ukoh (1993) points out, it is only when one is interested in an activity that he can spend long period of time and devout effort and energy to it. Where interest is lacking, participation in learning dwindles and performance is invariably affected. This is because interest in a subject leads to improve attitude toward it. It therefore, becomes necessary to examine the influence of available resources on students’ attitude to Basic Technology in secondary schools in Uyo Local Government Area.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study was to examine the availability of resources and students’ attitude to Basic Technology in secondary schools in Uyo Local Government Area. Specifically, the study seek:
i. To determine whether students’ Attitude to Basic Technology differ based on availability of basic hand tools.
ii. To determine whether students’ Attitude to Basic Technology differ based on availability of workshop machine tools.
iii. To examine whether student’s Attitude to Basic Technology differ based on the levels of utilization of instructional materials
iv. To determine whether students’ Attitude to Basic Technology differ based on the quality of Basic Technology teachers.
v. To ascertain whether students’ Attitude to Basic Technology differ based on the availability of school workshop.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The findings of this study will be beneficial to the students of Basic Technology as they will be taught with available technology resources. This will enhance students’ attitude toward basic technology in Uyo Local Government Area.
It is hoped that the findings of the study will help teachers of Basic Technology to improve and redirect their instructional strategies and teaching situations through technology resources available in the school.
The recommendation made in the study will enable the education stakeholders (State Ministry of Education) to provide enabling environment for the use of technology resources for teaching in secondary schools. This will improve and re-awaken the teaching and learning of Basic Technology.
It is also hope that the findings of this study will assist curriculum planners and designers to restructure Basic technology to include availability and utilization of technology resources for effective and efficient teaching and learning of Basic Technology.
1.5 Research Questions
The following research questions guided the study.
i. Do students’ attitudes to Basic Technology differ based on availability of basic hand tools?
ii. Is there any significant difference in students’ attitude to Basic Technology based on the availability of workshop machine tools?
iii. Is there any significant difference in students’ attitude to Basic Technology based on levels of utilization of instructional materials?
iv. Do students’ attitudes to Basic Technology differ based on the quality of Basic Technology teachers?
v. Is there any significant difference in students’ attitude to Basic Technology based on the availability of school workshop?
1.6 Research Hypotheses
i. There is no significant difference in students’ attitude to Basic Technology based on availability of basic hand tools.
ii. There is no significant differences in students’ attitude to Basic Technology based on how equipped the school Basic Technology workshop is.
iii. There is no significant difference in students’ attitude to Basic technology based on teachers’ utilization of instructional materials in the classroom.
iv. There is no significant difference in students’ attitude to Basic Technology based on quality of Basic Technology Teachers.
v. There is no significant difference in students’ attitude to Basic Technology based on the availability of Basic Technology workshop.
1.7 Basic Assumptions of the Study
It is assumed that the availability of basic technology workshop, hand tools, machine tools in schools, teachers’ utilization of instructional materials and students’ attitude to basic technology can be measured using reliable instruments.
1.8 Scope of the Study
The study was carried out in public secondary schools in Uyo Local Government Area. The study investigated the influence of resource availability on students’ attitude to Basic Technology in secondary schools.
1.9 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Subjective responses by the respondent, time constraint and inaccessibility to related works constituted limitations for the study.
1.10 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
The following terms are defined operationally in the study.
Resources availability: this is the availability of resources such as basic technology workshop, hand tools, machine tools, work-piece, qualified teachers and instructional materials in teaching and learning process.
Students’ Attitude: This refers to those predispositions of students towards Basic Technology.